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London Sewers & London's Main Drainage | London Lives 1690 to 1800 ~ Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis. 1820: Louis Pierre Louvel, anti-Bourbon assassin. June 7th, 2014 Headsman On this date in 1820, Louis Pierre Louvel was guillotined at Paris’s Place de Greve for murdering the heir to the French throne. Louvel (French link) was a Bonapartist saddler, so embittered by the return of the ancien regime that he vowed on the day of the Restoration to exterminate all the Bourbons. While his attempt to greet the returning Louis XVIII in April 1814 with a dagger came to naught, Louvel’s patience paid off six years later.

On February 13, 1820, he surprised the Duke of Berry outside the opera and plunged a knife into his chest. Louvel, who expired only the next morning, was not the heir to the throne: he was the younger of two sons of the Comte d’Artois, who was the brother of the still-reigning Louis XVIII. These Bourbons, however, seemed congenitally unable to reproduce: Louis XVIII would die childless, leaving the aforesaid Comte d’Artois to inherit as Charles X; the oldest of Artois’s children also had a childless marriage. Also on this date. Whitechapel murders. Most, if not all, of the victims—Emma Elizabeth Smith, Martha Tabram, Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, Mary Jane Kelly, Rose Mylett, Alice McKenzie, Frances Coles, and an unidentified woman—were prostitutes.

Smith was sexually assaulted and robbed by a gang. Tabram was stabbed 39 times. Nichols, Chapman, Stride, Eddowes, Kelly, McKenzie and Coles had their throats cut. Eddowes and Stride were killed on the same night, minutes and less than a mile apart; their murders were nicknamed the "double event", after a phrase in a postcard sent to the press by someone claiming to be the Ripper. The bodies of Nichols, Chapman, Eddowes and Kelly had abdominal mutilations. Mylett was strangled. The body of the unidentified woman was dismembered, but the exact cause of her death is unclear. The Metropolitan Police, City of London Police, and private organisations such as the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee were involved in the search for the killer or killers. Riot Act. The Riot Act booklet from Britain, early 20th century.

The Riot Act[1] (1714) (1 Geo.1 St.2 c.5) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that authorised local authorities to declare any group of twelve or more people to be unlawfully assembled, and thus have to disperse or face punitive action. The act, whose long title was "An Act for preventing tumults and riotous assemblies, and for the more speedy and effectual punishing the rioters", came into force on 1 August 1715.

It was repealed for England and Wales by section 10(2) of, and Part III of Schedule 3 to, the Criminal Law Act 1967. Introduction and purpose[edit] The Riot Act of 1714 was introduced during a time of civil disturbance in Great Britain, such as the Sacheverell riots of 1710, the Coronation riots of 1714 and the 1715 riots in England. Main provisions[edit] The full Riot Act. Proclamation of riotous assembly[edit] The wording that had to be read out to the assembled gathering was as follows: Other provisions[edit] Irish Citizens Can Finally Criticize Henry VIII's Marriage to Anne Boleyn. 0 5ShareNew Almost 500 years after the fact, citizens of Ireland are finally allowed to freely criticize the marriage between Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.

In 1533, citizens were probably plenty angry about the union. After all, Henry changed the entire religion of England in order to annul his 18-year marriage to Catherine of Aragon (and after Pope Clement VII excommunicated him). Henry wasn't particularly interested in hearing anyone's negative feelings about his new special someone—so he made sure no one expressed them. With a new piece of legislation called the Statute Law Revision Bill, Ireland recently repealed 5,782 laws that are no longer necessary (or relevant).

In addition to finally being able to trash talk Anne Boleyn, the Irish no longer have to spend the first Wednesday of the month fasting (1665) and are now allowed to openly eat both oatmeal and potatoes, even if said eaters aren't of "lower orders" (1817). [h/t: Irish Times] Whiskey Rebellion. The Whiskey Rebellion, also known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. The so-called "whiskey tax" was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government. It became law in 1791, and was intended to generate revenue to help reduce the national debt.[3] Although the tax applied to all distilled spirits, whiskey was by far the most popular distilled beverage in the 18th-century U.S.

Because of this, the excise became widely known as a "whiskey tax". The new excise was a part of U.S. treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to fund war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War. The tax was resisted by farmers in the western frontier regions who were long accustomed to distilling their surplus grain and corn into whiskey. Whiskey tax[edit] Western grievances[edit] Resistance[edit] Appeals to nonviolent resistance were unsuccessful. Insurrection[edit] Piracy. Piracy is typically an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea. The term can include acts committed on land, in the air, or in other major bodies of water or on a shore. It does not normally include crimes committed against persons traveling on the same vessel as the perpetrator (e.g. one passenger stealing from others on the same vessel). The term has been used throughout history to refer to raids across land borders by non-state agents. Piracy or pirating is the name of a specific crime under customary international law and also the name of a number of crimes under the municipal law of a number of States.

It is distinguished from privateering, which is authorized by national authorities and therefore a legitimate form of war-like activity by non-state actors.[1] Privateering is considered commerce raiding, and was outlawed by the Peace of Westphalia (1648) for signatories to those treaties. Those who engage in acts of piracy are called pirates. Etymology[edit] History by region[edit] Podcasts and Downloads - History Clips: Victorians. History & Mystery. Women at the Tudor Court. (last updated 12/15/2013) The following are taken from a variety of sources, including a great number of biographies.

Of particular use were Janet Arnold’s Queen Elizabeth’s Wardrobe Unlock’d, Barbara Harris’s English Aristocratic Women, Maria Hayward’s Dress at the Court of Henry VIII, two doctoral dissertations and entries in the L&P. All individuals marked with an * have entries under their maiden names in Kathy Lynn Emerson’s A Who’s Who of Tudor Women, as do some individuals whose names are not marked. I'm slowly cross-checking and adding these. It's probably worth taking a look at the Who's Who even if there isn't a * there yet. Many names are also repeated, sometimes with variant spellings, from list to list. To go to the WHO'S WHO index, click here: Household of Queen Elizabeth of York *Margaret Belknap *Mary Brandon, Mrs.

*Anne Cromer *Agnes Dean, laundress *Elizabeth Fitzherbert *Margaret Ellerbek, Mrs. *Elizabeth Saxby Household of Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales 1488 Margaret Brent (?) V&A and The National Archives | The Tudors | Court | Court life. Court Life in the time of Henry VIII Finding out about life at court helps us to see the big difference between the lives of the rich and the poor in Tudor times.

What was the Court? This was the place where the king lived. Henry VIII did not live alone in his palaces. Where did the king live? Henry spent time at several royal homes in London. A bit of a show off The court was a great place for Henry to show how rich and important he was. All the activities at court were planned to show Henry's talents and interests. Henry had artists and musicians at court. The poor people of England would not have seen these paintings or heard the music and poetry because it took place at court.

Who came to court? Courtiers were the richest and most important people in the country. In order to look the part, they had to wear expensive clothes. Courtiers and royalty moved in a stiff and unbending way. Courtiers wanted to be near the king because it was a chance to be noticed and to make a good impression. Jack the Ripper. Jack the Ripper Transform your history classroom. ActiveHistory provides entertaining, educational award-winning interactive simulations, decision-making games, self-marking quizzes, high-quality worksheets and detailed lesson plans for teachers and students. Useful Links Home of the "Head to Head"Virtual Interviews Testimonials from subscribers 'As a teaching and studying tool it's second to none'.

Patrick Scanlan, Head of History, King's College, Taunton, UK 'A fantastic teaching resource which my classes absolutely love. Mrs. Worksheets and Interactive Exercises Interactive exercises to round the unit off Audio-Visual resources <A HREF=" History in the News for Jack the Ripper 1. History weblinks for Jack the Ripper 1. Victorians 1850 - 1901. The world's largest empire is governed from Whitehall. Our collections offer an invaluable insight into the politics of empire and the daily lives of its citizens.

Our massive photographic holdings covering Britain and its colonies vividly bring the period to life. Topics Selling the Victorians Has advertising changed from Victorian times? Key stage 2 - 3 Victorian lives How different were Victorian lives from ours? History. 7 HISTORY. Egypt. 7 HISTORY. 25 maps that explain the English language. English is the language of Shakespeare and the language of Chaucer. It’s spoken in dozens of countries around the world, from the United States to a tiny island named Tristan da Cunha. It reflects the influences of centuries of international exchange, including conquest and colonization, from the Vikings through the 21st century. Here are 25 maps and charts that explain how English got started and evolved into the differently accented languages spoken today.

The origins of English 1) Where English comes from English, like more than 400 other languages, is part of the Indo-European language family, sharing common roots not just with German and French but with Russian, Hindi, Punjabi, and Persian. 2) Where Indo-European languages are spoken in Europe today Saying that English is Indo-European, though, doesn’t really narrow it down much. 3) The Anglo-Saxon migration 4) The Danelaw The next source of English was Old Norse. 5)The Norman Conquest 6) The Great Vowel Shift The spread of English Credits. Sumer. The irrigated farming together with annual replenishment of soil fertility and the surplus of storable food in temple granaries created by this economy allowed the population of this region to rise to levels never before seen, unlike those found in earlier cultures of shifting cultivators.

This much greater population density in turn created and required an extensive labour force and division of labour with many specialised arts and crafts. At the same time, historic overuse of the irrigated soils led to progressive salinisation, and a Malthusian crisis which led to depopulation of the Sumerian region over time, leading to its progressive eclipse by the Akkadians of middle Mesopotamia.

Sumer was also the site of early development of writing, progressing from a stage of proto-writing in the mid 4th millennium BC to writing proper in the 3rd millennium BC (see Jemdet Nasr period). Origin of name[edit] City-states in Mesopotamia[edit] Map of Sumer Other principal cities: History[edit]

The Tudor Period

Ancient Egypt. Britain's Past. The Ancient World. Past Horizons. Secret Bunkers In The UK. Britain Express. Smuggling. The Victorian Era. Ships & Shipwrecks. Historic Houses In England. Industrial Revolution. Iron and Coal, 1855–60, by William Bell Scott illustrates the central place of coal and iron working in the industrial revolution and the heavy engineering projects they made possible. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, and the development of machine tools.

It also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.[1] The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Etymology Textile manufacture Chemicals. Age of Enlightenment. The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason) is an era from the 1650s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.

It was promoted by philosophes and local thinkers in urban coffeehouses, salons and masonic lodges. It challenged the authority of institutions that were deeply rooted in society, such as the Catholic Church; there was much talk of ways to reform society with toleration, science and skepticism. New ideas and beliefs spread around the continent and were fostered by an increase in literacy due to a departure from solely religious texts. Publications include Encyclopédie (1751–72) that was edited by Denis Diderot and (until 1759) Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Some 25,000 copies of the 35 volume encyclopedia were sold, half of them outside France. Use of the term[edit] If there is something you know, communicate it. Time span[edit] Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire, alternatively known as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking eastern half continuation and remainder of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally founded as Byzantium. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire's east and west divided.

Nomenclature[edit] History[edit] Western Roman Empire. Roman Empire. Ancient Rome. Three-age system. Prehistory. Ages of Man. Stonewall riots.