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Creation myths. Creation. Creation Myths. Shillluk (Africa) [Excerpted and edited from Folklore in the Old Testament, J.G. Frazer.] The creator Juok moulded all people of earth. While he was engaged in the work of creation, he wandered about the world. In the land of the whites he found a pure white earth or sand, and out of it he shaped white people. The way in which he modeled human beings was this. Sikh For millions upon millions, countless years was spread darkness, When existed neither earth nor heaven, but only the limitless Divine Ordinance. Then were not Brahma, Vishnu or Shiva: None other than the Sole Lord was visible. Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva He created and to maya-attachment gave increase.

The Creator fashioned the Nine Abodes [of sensation]; In the Tenth [the superconscious mind] is lodged the Lord, unknowable, limitless. Tahitian He was. Vodun Damballah (Sky-serpent loa and wise and loving Father archetype) created all the waters of the earth. [From Vodun Creation Mythology (Site is currently inoperative.)] Yokut. ENUMA ELISH. Sacred-Texts Ancient Near East ENUMA ELISH THE EPIC OF CREATION L.W. King Translator (from The Seven Tablets of Creation, London 1902) A more complete etext of the Seven Tablets of Creation is also available here. When in the height heaven was not named, And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name, And the primeval Apsu, who begat them, And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both Their waters were mingled together, And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen; When of the gods none had been called into being, And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained; Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven, Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being...

[about 30 illegible lines] ... he spake: ... thy... he hath conquered and ... he weepeth and sitteth in tribulation. ... of fear, ... we shall not lie down in peace. ... Tiamat made weighty her handiwork, Evil she wrought against the gods her children. [A gap of about a dozen lines occurs here.] [Nearly fifty lines are here lost.] Epic of Creation.

Epic of Creation (Mesopotamia) | Thematic Essay. Stories describing creation are prominent in many cultures of the world. In Mesopotamia, the surviving evidence from the third millennium to the end of the first millennium B.C. indicates that although many of the gods were associated with natural forces, no single myth addressed issues of initial creation. It was simply assumed that the gods existed before the world was formed. Unfortunately, very little survives of Sumerian literature from the third millennium B.C. Several fragmentary tablets contain references to a time before the pantheon of the gods, when only the Earth (Sumerian: ki) and Heavens (Sumerian: an) existed. All was dark, there existed neither sunlight nor moonlight; however, the earth was green and water was in the ground, although there was no vegetation.

A Sumerian myth known today as "Gilgamesh and the Netherworld" opens with a mythological prologue. The origins of humans are described in another early second-millennium Sumerian poem, "The Song of the Hoe. " Comparison of Four African Creation Myths. By Jill Stuckwisch The four creation myths found on the internet, "An African Cosmogony," "An African Story of the Creation of Man," "Egyptian Cosmogony and Theogony," and the Yoruba creation myth found under "The Minneapolis Institute of Arts," have similar elements and incorporate values and norms common across many African Ethnic groups.

One of the dominant values common to many ethnic groups is the value of the family and group. All four myths directly illustrate the belief that a person is described in terms of his or her family and lineage. "An African Cosmogony" and the Yoruba creation myth specifically emphasize this attention to lineage. A commonality between all of the myths except "An African Story of the Creation of Man" is that creation is by way of the mouth or spoken word accompanies creation. in "An African Cosmogony" Bumba, the creator, brings forth everything in the world by vomiting them up; all things first pass through Bumba's mouth before coming into existence. The Epic of Gilgamesh: Character List. Genesis creation narrative. The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.

It is made up of two parts, roughly equivalent to the first two chapters of the Book of Genesis. In the first part, Genesis 1:1 through Genesis 2:3, Elohim, the generic Hebrew word for God, creates the world in six days, then rests on, blesses and sanctifies the seventh day. God creates by spoken command ("Let there be... "), suggesting a comparison with a king, who has only to speak for things to happen,[2] and names the elements of the cosmos as he creates them, in keeping with the common ancient concept that things did not really exist until they had been named.

Composition[edit] Sources[edit] Although tradition attributes Genesis to Moses, some biblical scholars believe that it, together with the following four books (making up what Jews call the Torah and biblical scholars call the Pentateuch) is "a composite work, the product of many hands and periods. " Structure[edit] Mesopotamian influence[edit] Framework interpretation (Genesis) This article focuses on the views of certain Christian commentators and theologians.

For a more general account of the topic, see Genesis creation narrative. The framework interpretation (also known as the literary framework view, framework theory, or framework hypothesis) is a description of the structure of the first chapter of the Book of Genesis (more precisely Genesis 1:1-2:4a), the Genesis creation narrative. It can be illustrated with the following table: Genesis 1 divides its six days of Creation into two groups of three ("triads"). The introduction, Genesis 1:1-2, "In the beginning ... the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep Differences exist on how to classify the two triads, but Meredith G. The framework interpretation is held by many theistic evolutionists and some progressive creationists. Jump up ^ Kline, "Space and Time," p. 6.Jump up ^ Davis A. Henri Blocher (1984). Allegorical interpretations of Genesis. Genesis is part of the canonical scriptures for both Christianity and Judaism, and thus to believers is taken as being of spiritual significance.

The opening sequences of the book tell the biblical story of origins. Those who read Genesis literally believe that it teaches the creation of humanity and the universe in general in a timeframe of six successive days of 24 hour durations. Those who favor an allegorical interpretation of the story claim that its intent is to describe humankind's relationship to creation and the creator. Some Jews and Christians have long considered the creation account of Genesis as an allegory instead of as historical description, much earlier than the development of modern science. Interpretation[edit] Church historians on allegorical interpretation of Genesis[edit] The literalist reading of some contemporary Christians maligns the allegorical or mythical interpretation of Genesis as a belated attempt to reconcile science with the biblical account.

St. St. Salvation. Salvation (Latin salvatio; Greek sōtēria; Hebrew yeshu'ah) is being saved or protected from harm[1] or being saved or delivered from some dire situation.[2] In religion, salvation is stated as the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.[3] The academic study of salvation is called soteriology. Meaning[edit] Abrahamic religions[edit] Judaism[edit] In contemporary Judaism, redemption (Hebrew ge'ulah), refers to God redeeming the people of Israel from their various exiles.[6] This includes the final redemption from the present exile.[7] Judaism holds that adherents do not need personal salvation as Christians believe.

The Jewish concept of Messiah visualises the return of the prophet Elijah as the harbinger of one who will redeem the world from war and suffering, leading mankind to universal brotherhood under the fatherhood of one God. When examining Jewish intellectual sources throughout history, there is clearly a spectrum of opinions regarding death versus the Afterlife.

Original sin. Ancestral sin. Ancestral sin (Greek: προπατορικὴ ἁμαρτία or προπατορικὸν ἁμάρτημα, more rarely προγονικὴ ἁμαρτία) is the object of a Christian doctrine taught by the Eastern Orthodox Church. Some identify it as "inclination towards sin, a heritage from the sin of our progenitors".[1] But most distinguish it from this tendency that remains even in baptized persons, since ancestral sin "is removed through baptism".[2] St. Gregory Palamas taught that, as a result of ancestral sin (called "original sin" in the West), man's image was tarnished, disfigured, as a consequence of Adam's disobedience.[3] The Greek theologian John Karmiris writes that "the sin of the first man, together with all of its consequences and penalties, is transferred by means of natural heredity to the entire human race.

Since every human being is a descendant of the first man, 'no one of us is free from the spot of sin, even if he should manage to live a completely sinless day.' ... Roman Catholic Church[edit] See also[edit] Creator deity. Polytheism[edit] Platonic demiurge[edit] Monolatrism[edit] Monism[edit] Monism has its origin in Hellenistic philosophy as a concept of all things deriving from a single substance or being. Following a long and still current tradition H.P. Owen (1971: 65) claimed that: "Pantheists are ‘monists’...they believe that there is only one Being, and that all other forms of reality are either modes (or appearances) of it or identical with it.

" Although, like Baruch Spinoza, some pantheists may also be monists, and monism may even be essential to some versions of pantheism (like Spinoza's), not all pantheists are monists. In Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is the abstract notion of "the Absolute" from which the universe takes its origin and at an ultimate level, all assertions of a distinction between Brahman, other gods and creation are meaningless (monism). Buddhism[edit] In Buddhism, causality is the responsible for creation.

Hinduism[edit] Jainism[edit] Monotheism[edit] Judaism[edit] Christianity[edit] Creation of man from clay. Fashioning a man out of clay According to Genesis 2:7 "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. "According to the Qur'an[23:12–15], God created man from clay.According to greek mythology (see Hesiod's poem Theogeny), Prometheus created man from clay, while Athena breathed life into them.According to Chinese mythology (see Chu Ci and Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era), Nüwa molded figures from the yellow earth, giving them life and the ability to bear children.According to Egyptian mythology the god Khnum creates human children from clay before placing them into their mother's womb.

انا خلقنا الانسان من صلصال من حمإ مسنون reference from sour at alhijer holy Quran. Young Earth creationism. Old Earth creationism. Old Earth creationism is an umbrella term for a number of types of creationism, including gap creationism, progressive creationism, and evolutionary creationism.[1] Old Earth creationism is typically more compatible with mainstream scientific thought on the issues of physics, chemistry, geology and the age of the Earth, in comparison to young Earth creationism.[2] Types of old Earth creationism[edit] Gap creationism[edit] Gap creationism states that life was immediately and recently created on a pre-existing old Earth. One variant rests on a rendering of Genesis 1:1-2 as: "In the beginning ... the earth was formless and void.

" This is taken by Gap creationists to imply that the earth already existed, but had passed into decay during an earlier age of existence, and was now being "shaped anew". Progressive creationism[edit] Theistic evolution[edit] Hindu creationism[edit] Approaches to Genesis 1[edit] The Framework interpretation[edit] Day-age creationism[edit] Cosmic Time[edit] Criticism[edit] Second death. The second death is an eschatological concept in Judaism and Christianity related to punishment after a first, natural, death. Judaism[edit] Although the term is not found in the Hebrew Bible, Sysling in his study (1996) of Teḥiyyat ha-metim (Hebrew; "resurrection of the dead") in the Palestinian Targums identifies a consistent usage of the term "second death" in texts of the Second Temple period and early Rabbinical writings.

In most cases this "second death" is identical with the judgment, following resurrection, in Gehinnom at the Last Day.[1] Targum Deuteronomy[edit] In Targum Neofiti (Neof.) and the fragments (FTP and FTV) the "second death" is the death the wicked die.[2] Targum Isaiah[edit] Targum Isaiah has three occurrences. Targum Jeremiah[edit] Targum Psalms[edit] The majority reading of Targum Psalm 49:11 has the Aramaic translation "For the wise see that the evildoers are judged in Gehinnom".

Rabbinic interpretations[edit] Christianity[edit] Different views[edit] See also[edit] Afterlife. Ancient Egyptian papyrus depicting the journey into the afterlife. Paradise of Bhaishajyaguru discovered at the Mogao Caves. [edit] In metaphysical models, theists generally believe some sort of afterlife awaits people when they die. Members of some generally non-theistic religions such as Buddhism, tend to believe in an afterlife, but without reference to a God. The Sadducees were an ancient Jewish sect that generally believed that there was a God but no afterlife.

Many religions, whether they believe in the soul's existence in another world like Christianity, Islam and many pagan belief systems, or in reincarnation like many forms of Hinduism and Buddhism, believe that one's status in the afterlife is a reward or punishment for their conduct during life. Reincarnation[edit] Reincarnation refers to an afterlife concept found among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs, Rosicrucians, Theosophists, Spiritists, and Wiccans.

Heaven and hell[edit] Limbo[edit] Purgatory[edit] Ancient religions[edit] Temptation. More informally, temptation may be used to mean "the state of being attracted and enticed" without anything to do with moral, ethical, or ideological valuation; for example, one may say that a piece of food looks "tempting" even though eating it would result in no negative consequences. Religious usage[edit] Temptation has implications deeply rooted in Judaism and the The Old Testament, starting with the story of Eve and the original sin. Many non-Western cultures had no precise equivalent until coming into contact with Europeans. [citation needed] For example, Jesuit missionaries in Brazil, translating the Lord's Prayer into Old Tupi, had to use the Portuguese word tentação, since Tupi had no word expressing "temptation" in that sense (see Old Tupi language#Sample text). Non-religious usage[edit] Temptation is usually used in a loose sense to describe actions which indicate a lack of self control.

See also[edit] References[edit] Serpent (Bible) Tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Garden of Eden.