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Citizen Science Alliance. Random notes in French & English from Pierre Lévy - Home. Network Weaving. PageRank. Alun Anderson. The Resonance Project Foundation. Environmental responsibility, personal coherence, planetary consciousness, social harmony - Global Coherence Initiative.

Wisdom of the crowd. The wisdom of the crowd is the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than that of a single expert.

Wisdom of the crowd

A large group's aggregated answers to questions involving quantity estimation, general world knowledge, and spatial reasoning has generally been found to be as good as, and often better than, the answer given by any of the individuals within the group. An explanation for this phenomenon is that there is idiosyncratic noise associated with each individual judgment, and taking the average over a large number of responses will go some way toward canceling the effect of this noise.[1] This process, while not new to the Information Age, has been pushed into the mainstream spotlight by social information sites such as Wikipedia, Yahoo!

Answers, Quora, and other web resources that rely on human opinion.[2] Category:Organizational psychology. The Wisdom of Crowds. The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations, published in 2004, is a book written by James Surowiecki about the aggregation of information in groups, resulting in decisions that, he argues, are often better than could have been made by any single member of the group.

The Wisdom of Crowds

The book presents numerous case studies and anecdotes to illustrate its argument, and touches on several fields, primarily economics and psychology. The Next Buddha Will Be a Collective. Présence d'attracteurs dans les systèmes informationnels. « C 'était en été dans une petite et ancienne ville de France, traversée par une rivière large et puissante.

présence d'attracteurs dans les systèmes informationnels

Je suis resté longtemps sur le seul pont de la cité à la contempler, fasciné par la beauté et la complexité du mouvement de l'eau. (...) (1) ». L'image de la rivière, avec ses flux et reflux, sa palette de couleurs chatoyant, ses jeux de lumière et ses scintillements constitue sans doute une étrange entrée en matière pour introduire la présence d'attracteurs dans les systèmes informationnels. Pourtant un système d'information (SI) forme aussi un spectacle vivant, naturellement et profondément différent de la somme des éléments qui le constituent. Un SI naît, évolue, disparaît tout comme d'ailleurs les organisations ou entreprises auxquelles il est intimement lié.

Ils sont différents de la somme de leurs composants. Les sources. Core Pearls. Computer cluster. A computer cluster consists of a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.

Computer cluster

Unlike grid computers, computer clusters have each node set to perform the same task, controlled and scheduled by software.[1][better source needed] The components of a cluster are usually connected to each other through fast local area networks ("LAN"), with each node (computer used as a server) running its own instance of an operating system.

In most circumstances, all of the nodes use the same hardware[2] and the same operating system, although in some setups (i.e. using Open Source Cluster Application Resources (OSCAR)), different operating systems can be used on each computer, and/or different hardware.[3] They are usually deployed to improve performance and availability over that of a single computer, while typically being much more cost-effective than single computers of comparable speed or availability.[4] History[edit] What comes after the cloud? How about the fog? (Credit: Rick Hyman/stock image) Startup Symform thinks it can provide better disaster resilience than even data centers hundreds of miles apart.

What comes after the cloud? How about the fog?

And, says Bassam Tabbara, Symform cofounder and Chief Technical Officer, it can do that in a way that’s extremely cheap — and in some cases free — to its customers, Tekla Perry writes on IEEE Spectrum. Tabbara describes Symform’s approach as a “decentralized, distributed, virtual, and crowd-sourced” cloud. .

Volunteer computing. Volunteer computing is a type of distributed computing in which computer owners donate their computing resources (such as processing power and storage) to one or more "projects".

Volunteer computing

History[edit] The first volunteer computing project was the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search, which was started in January 1996.[1] It was followed in 1997 by distributed.net. In 1997 and 1998, several academic research projects developed Java-based systems for volunteer computing; examples include Bayanihan,[2] Popcorn,[3] Superweb,[4] and Charlotte.[5] The term "volunteer computing" was coined by Luis F. G. Social peer-to-peer processes. Chris Anderson : Comment la vidéo sur le web alimente l'innovation mondiale.

Why Our Infant Global Brain is Helping the Best Ideas to Rise to the Top. Posted on Saturday, August 3, 2013 in Content Marketing For some time I’ve been trying to pin down exactly what is happening as we each spend more and more time online. Comment le partage de l’information contribue-t-il à l’émergence d’une « intelligence collective » ? - stmg. The Peer to Peer Manifesto: The Emergence of P2P Civilization and Political Economy. Our current political economy is based on a fundamental mistake.

The Peer to Peer Manifesto: The Emergence of P2P Civilization and Political Economy

It is based on the assumption that natural resources are unlimited, and that it is an endless sink. This false assumption creates artificial scarcity for potentially abundant cultural resources. Metaplan. Metaplan, Metaplan technique or simply card technique is a system for collecting ideas (or Creativity technique) when a group of people are working together.

Metaplan

The method was initiated by Eberhard Schnelle in Hamburg, Germany.[1] Apart from the simple visual technique as exampled, the method covers the performance of discussion butlers, known as moderators, as well as the structure of thinking processes within the context of group work. TRIZ. TRIZ (/ˈtriːz/; Russian: теория решения изобретательских задач, teoriya resheniya izobretatelskikh zadatch) is "a problem-solving, analysis and forecasting tool derived from the study of patterns of invention in the global patent literature".[1] It was developed by the Soviet inventor and science fiction author Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues, beginning in 1946.

TRIZ

In English the name is typically rendered as "the theory of inventive problem solving",[2][3] and occasionally goes by the English acronym TIPS. Following Altshuller's insight, the theory developed on a foundation of extensive research covering hundreds of thousands of inventions across many different fields to produce a theory which defines generalisable patterns in the nature of inventive solutions and the distinguishing characteristics of the problems that these inventions have overcome.

There are three primary findings of this research. §History[edit] §Basic principles of TRIZ[edit] §Essentials[edit] §Basic terms[edit] Value_proposition_designer_draft.pdf. One World Trust - APRO. Metamodeling. Example of a Geologic map information meta-model, with four types of meta-objects, and their self-references.[1] Metamodeling or meta-modeling is the analysis, construction and development of the frames, rules, constraints, models and theories applicable and useful for modeling a predefined class of problems.

Metamodeling

As its name implies, this concept applies the notions of meta- and modeling in software engineering and systems engineering. Overview[edit] Common uses for metamodels are: Metamodeling.pdf (Objet application/pdf) METADESIGN - Introduction. Ledface wants to use the 'Collective Brain' to help solve problems. Ever dreamt of making others work to answer any of your questions? Well, Brazilian startup Ledface has bold ambitions. It wants to use what it calls “the collective brain”, in other words crowdsourcing, to solve your day to day problems. It launched in private beta yesterday and we took it for a test drive. What Ledface is (and what it isn’t) Ledface is a crowdsourcing platform that aims to harness collective intelligence to answer questions.

LEDFace Blog - Help Us Build a New Kind of Intelligence. Principles of a Generative Meta-Design. Category:Human-based computation. Archify - What You See Is What You Search. Twitch Crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing via the Smartphone Lock Screen. Rather than swiping the screen or entering a passcode to unlock the smartphone in my hand, I have to tell it how energetic the people around me are feeling by tapping one of four icons.

I’m the only one here, and the one that best fits my actual energy level, to be honest, is a figure lying down and emitting a trail of z’s. I’m trying out an Android app called Twitch. Created by Stanford researchers, it asks you to complete a few simple tasks—contributing information, as with the reported energy levels, or performing simple tasks like ranking images or structuring data extracted from Wikipedia pages—each time you unlock your phone. The information collected by apps like Twitch could be useful to academics, market researchers, or local businesses. Such software could also provide a low-cost way to perform useful work that can easily be broken up into pieces and fed to millions of devices. Twitch is one of several projects exploring crowdsourcing via the lock screen.

SIGCHI Conference Paper Format - chi14-twitch.pdf. Open Archives Initiative. Four Elements Presentation (Master’s Defense) — It's Elemental. Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting. FP7 : ICT : Content and Knowledge : Projects. CORDIS: Technology Marketplace. La-foto-7.jpg (Image JPEG, 2397x1552 pixels) - Redimensionnée (52%) We want to build a Planetary Nervous System. Ben Franklin effect. Zeigarnik Effect. From PsychWiki - A Collaborative Psychology Wiki Evidence in accord with the Zeigarnik Effect: Insight about your digital death and afterlife. Les Fab Labs, ou le néo-artisanat.

Des cartes pour décrire des contes. Infomous. TIPIDIA. SocioPatterns.org. Category:Group processes. The Missing Manual for the Future. Bootstrapping Humanity's Next OS.