Experimenter's bias. In experimental science, experimenter's bias, also known as research bias, is a subjective bias towards a result expected by the human experimenter. For example, it occurs when scientists unconsciously affect subjects in experiments. Observer-expectancy effect The experimenter may introduce cognitive bias into a study in several ways.
In what is called the observer-expectancy effect, the experimenter may subtly communicate their expectations for the outcome of the study to the participants, causing them to alter their behavior to conform to those expectations. Using a substantial number of trials, Pfungst found that the horse could get the correct answer even if von Osten himself did not ask the questions, ruling out the possibility of fraud. However, the horse got the right answer only when the questioner knew what the answer was, and the horse could see the questioner.
Bias (statistics) A statistic is biased if it is calculated in such a way that it is systematically different from the population parameter of interest.
The following lists some types of biases, which can overlap. Selection bias,involves individuals being more likely to be selected for study than others, biasing the sample. List of common misconceptions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This incomplete list is not intended to be exhaustive.
This list corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature. ...Explain It Simply...Einstein. Rhetoric & Fallacies. List of cognitive biases. Demonstrations of silencing, a visual illusion. Cognitive bias. Some cognitive biases are presumably adaptive.
Cognitive biases may lead to more effective actions in a given context. Furthermore, allowing cognitive biases enable faster decisions which can be desirable when timeliness is more valuable than accuracy, as illustrated in heuristics. Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations, resulting from a lack of appropriate mental mechanisms (bounded rationality), or simply from a limited capacity for information processing. A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics.
Kahneman and Tversky (1996) argue that cognitive biases have efficient practical implications for areas including clinical judgment, entrepreneurship, finance, and management. The 12 cognitive biases that prevent you from being rational. The human brain is capable of 1016 processes per second, which makes it far more powerful than any computer currently in existence.
15 Styles of Distorted Thinking. Top 10 Thinking Traps Exposed. Our minds set up many traps for us. Unless we’re aware of them, these traps can seriously hinder our ability to think rationally, leading us to bad reasoning and making stupid decisions. Features of our minds that are meant to help us may, eventually, get us into trouble. Here are the first 5 of the most harmful of these traps and how to avoid each one of them. Introspection illusion. Biais cognitif. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
Un biais cognitif est un schéma de pensée, cause de déviation du jugement. Le terme biais fait référence à une déviation systématique par rapport à une pensée considérée comme correcte [Par qui ?]. L'étude des biais cognitifs fait l'objet de nombreux travaux en psychologie cognitive, en psychologie sociale et plus généralement dans les sciences cognitives. Les distorsions cognitives. Les distorsions cognitives. La pensée dichotomique : tout ou rien Lorsque le raisonnement est privé de nuances, tout ce qui n’est pas une victoire devient une défaite, tout ce qui n’est pas sans risque devient dangereux, etc.
Ce type de pensée se retrouve logiquement associé au perfectionnisme, aux sentiments dépressifs d’incapacité, de culpabilité, d’autodévalorisation mais également à certains traits de personnalités pathologiques. « Si vous n’êtes pas avec moi, vous êtes contre moi » « J’ai fait un écart, ça ne vaut plus la peine de continuer le régime » « L’employeur ne m’a pas recruté, je ne suis pas fait pour ce boulot » L’abstraction sélective : filtrage mental D’un événement ou d’une expérience ne seront retenus que les détails les plus déplaisants. . « J’ai gâché mon RDV avec lui car en l’embrassant, je lui ai marché sur le pied » « Mon exposé est raté, j’ai vu quelqu’un rire dans le public » « Ce médecin a consulté le Vidal pendant la consultation, il n’est pas compétent »
Cognitive Dissonance. Understanding this experiment sheds a brilliant light on the dark world of our inner motivations.
The ground-breaking social psychological experiment of Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) provides a central insight into the stories we tell ourselves about why we think and behave the way we do. The experiment is filled with ingenious deception so the best way to understand it is to imagine you are taking part. So sit back, relax and travel back. Hidden persuaders. 7 Stupid Thinking Errors You Probably Make. The brain isn’t a flawless piece of machinery.
Although it is powerful and comes in an easy to carry container, it has it’s weaknesses. A field in psychology which studies these errors, known as biases. Although you can’t upgrade your mental hardware, noticing these biases can clue you into possible mistakes.How Bias Hurts You If you were in a canoe, you’d probably want to know about any holes in the boat before you start paddling. Cognitive traps for intelligence analysis. This article deals with a subset of the intellectual process of intelligence analysis itself, as opposed to intelligence analysis management, which in turn is a subcomponent of intelligence cycle management.
For a complete hierarchical list of articles in this series, see the intelligence cycle management hierarchy. Intelligence analysis is plagued by many of the cognitive traps also encountered in other disciplines. The first systematic study of the specific pitfalls lying between an intelligence analyst and clear thinking was carried out by Dick Heuer. According to Heuer, these traps may be rooted either in the analyst's organizational culture or his or her own personality.
Types The most common personality trap, known as mirror-imaging is the analysts' assumption that the people being studied think like the analysts themselves. The Basic Laws of Human Stupidity. THE BASIC LAWS OF HUMAN STUPIDITY by Carlo M. Kathryn Schulz : A propos de nos erreurs. Try The McGurk Effect! - Horizon: Is Seeing Believing? - BBC Two.
Unstructured Thoughts by Taylor Davidson (@tdavidson) Below are the 25 most important lessons I’ve learned through close observation and first-hand experiences in how entrepreneurs and startups fail. The first sixteen primarily address strategic and operational issues, and the last nine deal more with management and organizational issues. I believe the three most important factors for any company are people, product and market, so I’m not sure that the ratio of ways to fail really fits my overall beliefs, but perhaps you’ll have ideas and lessons you’ve learned that will bring the ratio more in line.