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Rhetoric & Fallacies

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Dictionnaire de rhétorique et des figures de style. Lexique, Définition. Figurez-vous que vous avez du style! On pourrait croire que les figures de style sont l’apanage des grands auteurs et des professeurs de français qui prennent plaisir à tourmenter leurs étudiants...

Figurez-vous que vous avez du style!

Pourtant, chacun de nous emploie quotidiennement plusieurs procédés stylistiques. Sans même y penser, nous agrémentons notre discours de métaphores, de métonymies ou d’ellipses. La plupart du temps, cependant, nous serions incapables de nommer ces figures. Difficile alors de différencier l’antiphrase de l’ironie, l’euphémisme de la litote, l’anacyclique du palindrome, ou la périphrase de la circonlocution. - Les figures de rhétorique - Les figures de style - SCHOPENHAUER'S 38 STRATAGEMS, OR 38 WAYS TO WIN AN ARGUMENT. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), was a brilliant German philosopher.

SCHOPENHAUER'S 38 STRATAGEMS, OR 38 WAYS TO WIN AN ARGUMENT

These 38 Stratagems are excerpts from "The Art of Controversy", first translated into English and published in 1896. Carry your opponent's proposition beyond its natural limits; exaggerate it. The more general your opponent's statement becomes, the more objections you can find against it. The Art of Being Right. The Art of Being Right: 38 Ways to Win an Argument (1831) (Eristische Dialektik: Die Kunst, Recht zu Behalten) is an acidulous and sarcastic treatise written by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer in sarcastic deadpan.[1] In it, Schopenhauer examines a total of thirty-eight methods of showing up one's opponent in a debate.

The Art of Being Right

He introduces his essay with the idea that philosophers have concentrated in ample measure on the rules of logic, but have not (especially since the time of Immanuel Kant) engaged with the darker art of the dialectic, of controversy. Whereas the purpose of logic is classically said to be a method of arriving at the truth, dialectic, says Schopenhauer, "...on the other hand, would treat of the intercourse between two rational beings who, because they are rational, ought to think in common, but who, as soon as they cease to agree like two clocks keeping exactly the same time, create a disputation, or intellectual contest. " Publication[edit] A. C. Synopsis[edit] Rhétorique. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.

Rhétorique

Au-delà de cette définition générale, la rhétorique a connu au cours de son histoire une tension entre deux conceptions antagonistes, la rhétorique comme art de la persuasion et la rhétorique comme art de l'éloquence. La rhétorique grecque, telle qu'elle fut pratiquée par les sophistes et codifiée par Aristote, se préoccupait principalement de persuader. Langue_bois. Générateur de langue de bois. La langue de bois !

Générateur de langue de bois

Un langage que tout présidentiable sérieux se doit de maîtriser. Eluder les questions embarrassantes, parler pour ne rien dire, brosser l'électeur dans le sens du poil, autant d'exercices dans lesquels la plupart des hommes politiques excelle. Mais la campagne est longue. Parce qu'on ne peut pas être au sommet de sa forme tous les jours, Présidentielle 2012 met à la disposition des candidats ce générateur de langue de bois. D'une utilisation très simple, il vous sortira des situations les plus embarassantes et vous évitera de faire des promesses que vous n'avez pas l'intention de tenir. Deepak Chopra Mad Libs. Just-world hypothesis. The hypothesis popularly appears in the English language in various figures of speech that imply guaranteed negative reprisal, such as: "You got what was coming to you", "What goes around comes around", and "You reap what you sow".

Just-world hypothesis

This hypothesis has been widely studied by social psychologists since Melvin J. Lerner conducted seminal work on the belief in a just world in the early 1960s.[1] Research has continued since then, examining the predictive capacity of the hypothesis in various situations and across cultures, and clarifying and expanding the theoretical understandings of just-world beliefs.[2] Emergence[edit] Taxonomy of the Logical Fallacies. Fallacies. Dr.

Fallacies

Michael C. Labossiere, the author of a Macintosh tutorial named Fallacy Tutorial Pro 3.0, has kindly agreed to allow the text of his work to appear on the Nizkor site, as a Nizkor Feature. It remains © Copyright 1995 Michael C. Labossiere, with distribution restrictions -- please see our copyright notice. If you have questions or comments about this work, please direct them both to the Nizkor webmasters (webmaster@nizkor.org) and to Dr. Other sites that list and explain fallacies include: Constructing a Logical Argument. Logical Fallacies. Fallacies  A fallacy is a kind of error in reasoning.

Fallacies 

The list of fallacies contains 209 names of the most common fallacies, and it provides brief explanations and examples of each of them. Fallacies should not be persuasive, but they often are. Fallacies may be created unintentionally, or they may be created intentionally in order to deceive other people. The vast majority of the commonly identified fallacies involve arguments, although some involve explanations, or definitions, or other products of reasoning. Sometimes the term "fallacy" is used even more broadly to indicate any false belief or cause of a false belief. Silva Rhetoricae: The Forest of Rhetoric. Rhetoric. Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts.

This painting illustrates rhetorics. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments.[4] The word is derived from the Greek ῥητορικός (rhētorikós), "oratorical",[5] from ῥήτωρ (rhḗtōr), "public speaker",[6] related to ῥῆμα (rhêma), "that which is said or spoken, word, saying",[7] and ultimately derived from the verb ἐρῶ (erō), "say, speak".[8]

Category:Rhetoric theorists. Figure de style. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Une figure de style, du latin figura, est un procédé d’expression qui s’écarte de l’usage ordinaire de la langue et donne une expressivité particulière au propos. On parle également de figure de rhétorique ou de figure du discours. Si certains auteurs établissent des distinctions dans la portée des deux expressions, l’usage courant en fait des synonymes. Substitution opérée par la métaphore : « Ils viennent les chevaux de la Mer ! Clé des procédés littéraires.

Tout ce qui peut se faire dans le domaine des lettres: effet de style, "fleur de rhétorique", forme poétique, type d'argument, artifice romanesque, jeu de mot... se trouve ici; y compris le geste et le dessin accompagnant du texte.

Clé des procédés littéraires

Figure of speech. A figure of speech is the use of a word or a phrase, which transcends its literal interpretation.

Figure of speech

It can be a special repetition, arrangement or omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words in it, as in idiom, metaphor, simile, hyperbole, personification, or synecdoche. Figures of speech often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity. Thou shalt not commit logical fallacies. La Dialectique éristique. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Définition[modifier | modifier le code] « La dialectique éristique est l'art de la controverse. » Cet art repose sur la distinction entre la vérité objective d'une proposition et l'apparence de vérité que cette proposition peut prendre aux yeux des disputeurs et des auditeurs.

La finalité de cet art est de fournir des moyens pour parvenir à cette dernière apparence, afin de convaincre les auditeurs que l'on a raison, même si l'on a objectivement tort. Causes et fonctions de la dialectique[modifier | modifier le code] Si les hommes étaient honnêtes, il n'y aurait pas de dialectique. Sophisme. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Un sophisme est une argumentation à la logique fallacieuse. C'est un raisonnement qui cherche à paraître rigoureux mais qui n'est en réalité pas valide au sens de la logique (quand bien même sa conclusion serait pourtant la « vraie »). À l'inverse du paralogisme, qui est une erreur dans un raisonnement, le sophisme est fallacieux : il est prononcé avec l'intention de tromper l'auditoire afin, par exemple, de prendre l'avantage dans une discussion. Souvent, les sophismes prennent l'apparence d'un syllogisme (qui repose sur des prémisses insuffisantes ou non-pertinentes ou qui procède par enthymème, etc.).

Ils peuvent aussi s'appuyer sur d'autres mécanismes psychologiques jouant par exemple avec l'émotion de l'auditoire, l'ascendant social du locuteur (argument d'autorité) ou des biais cognitifs (comme l'oubli de la fréquence de base). Origines du mot[modifier | modifier le code] Fallacy. A fallacy is the use of poor, or invalid, reasoning for the construction of an argument.[1][2] A fallacious argument may be deceptive by appearing to be better than it really is.

Some fallacies are committed intentionally to manipulate or persuade by deception, while others are committed unintentionally due to carelessness or ignorance. Fallacies are commonly divided into "formal" and "informal". A formal fallacy can be expressed neatly in a standard system of logic, such as propositional logic,[1] while an informal fallacy originates in an error in reasoning other than an improper logical form.[3] Arguments containing informal fallacies may be formally valid, but still fallacious.[4] Formal fallacy[edit] Main article: Formal fallacy A formal fallacy is a common error of thinking that can neatly be expressed in standard system of logic.[1] An argument that is formally fallacious is rendered invalid due to a flaw in its logical structure.

Common examples[edit] Stephen Downes Guide to the Logical Fallacies. Copyright © Stephen Downes, 1995-2000 stephen.downes@ualberta.ca Taken from Fallacies of Distraction Ø False Dilemma: two choices are given when in fact there are three options Ø From Ignorance: because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to be false Ø Slippery Slope: a series of increasingly unacceptable consequences is drawn Ø Complex Question: two unrelated points are conjoined as a single proposition. List of Fallacies. A fallacy is incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity, or more generally, a lack of soundness. Fallacies are either formal fallacies or informal fallacies.

Formal fallacies[edit] Main article: Formal fallacy. Rhetological Fallacies. Buy a printable multi-language PDF Thanks to 李为维, Hayanna Carvalho, Iván Galarza, Klaus-Michael Lux, Kadar Magor, Gilles Peyroux and Adriano Venditti, Rhetological Fallacies is now available in Chinese, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish. We’re thinking of creating an interactive version of this graphic. Is that a good idea? Let us know your thoughts & ideas in our 30 sec survey. Culture & Education. Gabriella Coleman - Faculty Bio. Gabriella Coleman Curriculum Vitae/Syllabi. The Self-Attribution Fallacy. Intelligence? Talent? No, the ultra-rich got to where they are through luck and brutality. By George Monbiot.