Intelligence. Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in non-human animals and in plants.
Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in machines. Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. The psychometric approach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched and by far the most widely used in practical settings. §History of the term Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive.
Intelligence quotient. IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ.
While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance. History Early history The English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardised test for rating a person's intelligence. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test in 1905, which focused on verbal abilities. The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. Flynn effect. Test score increases have been continuous and approximately linear from the earliest years of testing to the present.
For the Raven's Progressive Matrices test, subjects born over a 100-year period were compared in Des Moines, Iowa, and separately in Dumfries, Scotland. Forget IQ, Collective Intelligence is the New Measure of Smart (video. We may focus on the stories of individual genius, but it will be harnessing the intelligence of the collective that enables humanity to solve its future problems.
Do you know your IQ, that little number that’s supposed to measure how smart you are? Forget it. Individual intelligence is old news, collective intelligence (CI) is the future. And it’s already here. Google lets you access the collective records of the world via internet searches. Collective intelligence can include distributed computing.
Beyond IQ: Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM) The Future of Intelligence. Cadell Last, Adam Ford By Cadell Last Human intelligence, like everything related to biological systems, is an evolving phenomenon.
It has not been static in the past, and will not persist in its current form into the future. The human-version of intelligence has made our species the most powerful agent of change ever produced by the earth's biosphere. Therefore, understanding its evolutionary past should be a primary concern for evolutionary theorists. Clearly the human ability to engage in these novel behaviours is dependent on the human brain. Promises and Perils on the Road to Superintelligence. Global Brain / Image credit: mindcontrol.se In the 21st century, we are walking an important road.
Our species is alone on this road and it has one destination: super-intelligence. The most forward-thinking visionaries of our species were able to get a vague glimpse of this destination in the early 20th century. Paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin called this destination Omega Point. Mathematician Stanislaw Ulam called it “singularity”: Michael Nielsen on Networked Science. Albert Jacquard La vraie intelligence. Mind Wandering: A New Personal Intelligence Perspective.
Some recent studies (Baird et al., 2011, 2012; Smallwood et al., 2011b; Immordino-Yang etal., 2012) have provided glimpses of how mind wandering or “constructive, internal reflection” (Immordino-Yangetal.,2012) might benefit the individual, but we are just beginning to scratch the surface.
To gain a fuller understanding of the benefits of positive constructive daydreaming we need to apply tools and metrics (as in Klinger et al., 1980; Hoelscher et al., 1981; Nikles et al., 1998; Cox and Klinger, 2011; Klinger and Cox, 2011) that enable us identify the personally meaningful goals, aspirations, and dreams of individuals and determine how mind wandering supports or undermines those goals. Given the highly personal nature of mind wandering, we need a new focus and new metrics.
Science confirms: IQ is not equivalent to Intelligence. Have you always suspected that you’re more intelligent than your IQ gives you credit for?
It turns out that science is on your side! The researchers at the University of Western Ontario have recently demonstrated that intellectual capabilities cannot be reduced to a single number.
Systems thinking. Impression of systems thinking about society A system is composed of interrelated parts or components (structures) that cooperate in processes (behavior).
Natural systems include biological entities, ocean currents, the climate, the solar system and ecosystems. Designed systems include airplanes, software systems, technologies and machines of all kinds, government agencies and business systems. Systems Thinking has at least some roots in the General System Theory that was advanced by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1940s and furthered by Ross Ashby in the 1950s. The term Systems Thinking is sometimes used as a broad catch-all heading for the process of understanding how systems behave, interact with their environment and influence each other. Alex Wissner-Gross: A new equation for intelligence. G factor (psychometrics) The g factor (short for "general factor") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities.
It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor. The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests. The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century.
The Heritability of Intelligence: Not What You Think. One of the longest standing assumptions about the nature of human intelligence has just been seriously challenged. According to the traditional “investment” theory, intelligence can be classified into two main categories: fluid and crystallized. Differences in fluid intelligence are thought to reflect novel, on-the-spot reasoning, whereas differences in crystallized intelligence are thought to reflect previously acquired knowledge and skills. Intellectual Myths. Multi-agent system. Simple reflex agent Learning agent Concept Multi-agent systems consist of agents and their environment. Typically multi-agent systems research refers to software agents. However, the agents in a multi-agent system could equally well be robots, humans or human teams. Agents can be divided into different types: Intelligence ambiante.
Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'évolution des ordinateurs : la course à la miniaturisation et à la diffusion dans le milieu ambiant L'intelligence ambiante est ce que pourrait devenir l'informatique dans la première moitié du XXIe siècle en repoussant les limites technologiques qu'elle avait à la fin du XXe siècle [réf. nécessaire]. Apps for Multiple Intelligences. Ambient intelligence. An (expected) evolution of computing from 1960–2010. In computing, ambient intelligence (AmI) refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people.
Ambient intelligence is a vision on the future of consumer electronics, telecommunications and computing that was originally developed in the late 1990s for the time frame 2010–2020. In an ambient intelligence world, devices work in concert to support people in carrying out their everyday life activities, tasks and rituals in an easy, natural way using information and intelligence that is hidden in the network connecting these devices (see Internet of Things). As these devices grow smaller, more connected and more integrated into our environment, the technology disappears into our surroundings until only the user interface remains perceivable by users.
Intelligence distribuée. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Un vol d'étourneaux maintient sa cohérence avec un ensemble de règles simples au niveau individuel. ADIT : Leader européen de l’Intelligence Stratégique. RÉFLEXIONS SUR L’INTELLIGENCE STRATÉGIQUE. Par Clark G. KHADIGE, dba, desg. ASE Intelligence strategique - 6-Collective Intelligence. Forms of Collective Intelligence.
L'intelligence du coeur. Category:Collective intelligence. Intelligence amplification. Intelligence amplification (IA) (also referred to as cognitive augmentation and machine augmented intelligence) refers to the effective use of information technology in augmenting human intelligence. The idea was first proposed in the 1950s and 1960s by cybernetics and early computer pioneers. IA is sometimes contrasted with AI (Artificial Intelligence), that is, the project of building a human-like intelligence in the form of an autonomous technological system such as a computer or robot. AI has encountered many fundamental obstacles, practical as well as theoretical, which for IA seem moot, as it needs technology merely as an extra support for an autonomous intelligence that has already proven to function. Moreover, IA has a long history of success, since all forms of information technology, from the abacus to writing to the Internet, have been developed basically to extend the information processing capabilities of the human mind (see extended mind and distributed cognition). ..
" J. Collaborative intelligence. Collaborative intelligence characterizes multi-agent, distributed systems where each agent, human or machine, is uniquely positioned, with autonomy to contribute to a problem-solving network. Collaborative autonomy of organisms in their ecosystems makes evolution possible. Natural ecosystems, where each organism's unique signature is derived from its genetics, circumstances, behavior and position in its ecosystem, offer principles for design of next generation social networks to support collaborative intelligence, crowd-sourcing individual expertise, preferences, and unique contributions in a problem-solving process. Overview On intelligence: spies and secrecy in an open world - Robert David Steele - Google Books. The World Centre for New Thinking. PASS theory of intelligence.
Description Based on A. R. The height of intelligence. Tall people are smarter. Valentin Turchin. Valentin Fyodorovich Turchin (Russian: Валенти́н Фёдорович Турчи́н, 1931 – 7 April 2010) was a Soviet and American cybernetician and computer scientist. He developed the Refal programming language, the theory of metasystem transitions and the notion of supercompilation. Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework - 1962 (AUGMENT,3906,) Category:Factors related to intelligence.
Intelligence analysis. Why We Need to Redefine Intelligence - HBR IdeaCast. I² Home page. Structure of Intelligence Table of Contents. Human Intelligence: biographical profiles, current controversies, resources for teachers. 01 amendements au glossaire des qualificatifs de l intelligence 3. Category:Intelligence by type. Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory. The Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory, or CHC theory, is a psychological theory of human cognitive abilities that takes its name from Raymond Cattell, John L. Horn and John Bissell Carroll. Recent advances in current theory and research on the structure of human cognitive abilities have resulted in a new empirically derived model commonly referred to as the Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory of cognitive abilities.
The MindHub - The Mindhub - Meet Dr. Kevin McGrew, PHD. Cattell-Horn-Carroll CHC (Gf-Gc) Theory: Past, Present & Future. Fluid and crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of these using logic.
Three stratum theory. Swarm intelligence. Guilford's Structure of Intellect. Convergent and divergent production. Triarchic theory of intelligence. Category:Animal intelligence. Group intelligence. Animal Intelligence.