Intelligence has been defined in many different ways such as in terms of one's capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, and problem solving. Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in animals and in plants. Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in machines. Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. The psychometric approach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched and by far the most widely used in practical settings.[1] Intelligence Intelligence
Intelligence quotient Intelligence quotient IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality,[2][3] parental social status,[4] and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates[5][6] and the mechanisms of inheritance.[7] History[edit] Early history[edit]
Test score increases have been continuous and approximately linear from the earliest years of testing to the present. For the Raven's Progressive Matrices test, subjects born over a 100-year period were compared in Des Moines, Iowa, and separately in Dumfries, Scotland. Improvements were remarkably consistent across the whole period, in both countries.[1] This effect of an apparent increase in IQ has also been observed in various other parts of the world, though the rates of increase vary.[2] Flynn effect Flynn effect
Forget IQ, Collective Intelligence is the New Measure of Smart (video Forget IQ, Collective Intelligence is the New Measure of Smart (video We may focus on the stories of individual genius, but it will be harnessing the intelligence of the collective that enables humanity to solve its future problems. Do you know your IQ, that little number that’s supposed to measure how smart you are? Forget it. Individual intelligence is old news, collective intelligence (CI) is the future. And it’s already here.
Beyond IQ: Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM) 17,525 views The current slides supplement the on-line background paper “Beyond IQ: A Model of Academic Competence and Motivation” (Kevin McGrew, 2008), which is presented in the form of an Institute for ... The current slides supplement the on-line background paper “Beyond IQ: A Model of Academic Competence and Motivation” (Kevin McGrew, 2008), which is presented in the form of an Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Evolving Web of Knowledge (EWOK). Beyond IQ: Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM)
Cadell Last, Adam Ford By Cadell Last Human intelligence, like everything related to biological systems, is an evolving phenomenon. It has not been static in the past, and will not persist in its current form into the future. The human-version of intelligence has made our species the most powerful agent of change ever produced by the earth's biosphere. Therefore, understanding its evolutionary past should be a primary concern for evolutionary theorists. The Future of Intelligence The Future of Intelligence
Global Brain / Image credit: mindcontrol.se In the 21st century, we are walking an important road. Our species is alone on this road and it has one destination: super-intelligence. Promises and Perils on the Road to Superintelligence Promises and Perils on the Road to Superintelligence
Michael Nielsen on Networked Science Michael Nielsen on Networked Science In January 2009, a mathematician at Cambridge University named Tim Gowers decided to use his blog to run an unusual social experiment. He picked out a difficult mathematical problem and tried to solve it completely in the open, using his blog to post ideas and partial progress. He issued an open invitation for others to contribute their own ideas, hoping that many minds would be more powerful than one. He dubbed the experiment the Polymath Project. Several hours after Mr.
▶ Albert Jacquard La vraie intelligence
Mind Wandering: A New Personal Intelligence Perspective | Beautiful Minds Some recent studies (Baird et al., 2011, 2012; Smallwood et al., 2011b; Immordino-Yang etal., 2012) have provided glimpses of how mind wandering or “constructive, internal reflection” (Immordino-Yangetal.,2012) might benefit the individual, but we are just beginning to scratch the surface. To gain a fuller understanding of the benefits of positive constructive daydreaming we need to apply tools and metrics (as in Klinger et al., 1980; Hoelscher et al., 1981; Nikles et al., 1998; Cox and Klinger, 2011; Klinger and Cox, 2011) that enable us identify the personally meaningful goals, aspirations, and dreams of individuals and determine how mind wandering supports or undermines those goals. Given the highly personal nature of mind wandering, we need a new focus and new metrics. Mind Wandering: A New Personal Intelligence Perspective | Beautiful Minds
Science confirms: IQ is not equivalent to Intelligence Have you always suspected that you’re more intelligent than your IQ gives you credit for? It turns out that science is on your side! The researchers at the University of Western Ontario have recently demonstrated that intellectual capabilities cannot be reduced to a single number. Science confirms: IQ is not equivalent to Intelligence
Multiple intelligences theory

Impression of systems thinking about society[1] A system is composed of interrelated parts or components (structures) that cooperate in processes (behavior). Natural systems include biological entities, ocean currents, the climate, the solar system and ecosystems. Designed systems include airplanes, software systems, technologies and machines of all kinds, government agencies and business systems. Systems thinking
Alex Wissner-Gross: A new equation for intelligence
The g factor (short for "general factor") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor.[1] The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests.[2] The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century. g factor (psychometrics)
The Heritability of Intelligence: Not What You Think | Beautiful Minds One of the longest standing assumptions about the nature of human intelligence has just been seriously challenged. According to the traditional “investment” theory, intelligence can be classified into two main categories: fluid and crystallized. Differences in fluid intelligence are thought to reflect novel, on-the-spot reasoning, whereas differences in crystallized intelligence are thought to reflect previously acquired knowledge and skills. According to this theory, crystallized intelligence develops through the investment of fluid intelligence in a particular body of knowledge. As far as genetics is concerned, this story has a very clear prediction: In the general population– in which people differ in their educational experiences– the heritability of crystallized intelligence is expected to be lower than the heritability of fluid intelligence.
Myth #1 - Now that the intelligences have been identified, researchers should develop tests to measure these intelligences.Reality #1 - MI theory is a critique of the standard psychometric approach wherein researchers test a construct; as such, Myth #1 is inconsistent with one of the major tenets of the theory. On the other hand, assessments in rich, real life contexts can be quite helpful. In this respect, one should consult some of the example Good Practices on this website, such as Project Spectrum and Explorama. Myth #2 - An intelligence is the same as a domain or a discipline.Reality #2 - An intelligence is a new kind of construct. Intellectual Myths | Mi Oasis
Simple reflex agent Learning agent Concept[edit] Multi-agent systems consist of agents and their environment. Typically multi-agent systems research refers to software agents. However, the agents in a multi-agent system could equally well be robots,[5] humans or human teams. Multi-agent system
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