Intelligence. Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in non-human animals and in plants.
Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in machines. Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. The psychometric approach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched and by far the most widely used in practical settings. §History of the term Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive.
Intelligence quotient. IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ.
While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance. History Early history The English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardised test for rating a person's intelligence. Flynn effect. Test score increases have been continuous and approximately linear from the earliest years of testing to the present.
For the Raven's Progressive Matrices test, subjects born over a 100-year period were compared in Des Moines, Iowa, and separately in Dumfries, Scotland. Improvements were remarkably consistent across the whole period, in both countries. This effect of an apparent increase in IQ has also been observed in various other parts of the world, though the rates of increase vary. There are numerous proposed explanations of the Flynn effect, as well as some skepticism about its implications. Similar improvements have been reported for other cognitions such as semantic and episodic memory. Recent research suggests that the Flynn effect may have ended in at least a few developed nations, possibly allowing national differences in IQ scores to diminish if the Flynn effect continues in nations with lower average national IQs.
Forget IQ, Collective Intelligence is the New Measure of Smart (video. We may focus on the stories of individual genius, but it will be harnessing the intelligence of the collective that enables humanity to solve its future problems.
Do you know your IQ, that little number that’s supposed to measure how smart you are? Forget it. Beyond IQ: Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM) The Future of Intelligence. Cadell Last, Adam Ford By Cadell Last Human intelligence, like everything related to biological systems, is an evolving phenomenon.
It has not been static in the past, and will not persist in its current form into the future. The human-version of intelligence has made our species the most powerful agent of change ever produced by the earth's biosphere. Therefore, understanding its evolutionary past should be a primary concern for evolutionary theorists. Clearly the human ability to engage in these novel behaviours is dependent on the human brain. Promises and Perils on the Road to Superintelligence. Global Brain / Image credit: mindcontrol.se In the 21st century, we are walking an important road.
Michael Nielsen on Networked Science. Albert Jacquard La vraie intelligence. Mind Wandering: A New Personal Intelligence Perspective. Some recent studies (Baird et al., 2011, 2012; Smallwood et al., 2011b; Immordino-Yang etal., 2012) have provided glimpses of how mind wandering or “constructive, internal reflection” (Immordino-Yangetal.,2012) might benefit the individual, but we are just beginning to scratch the surface.
To gain a fuller understanding of the benefits of positive constructive daydreaming we need to apply tools and metrics (as in Klinger et al., 1980; Hoelscher et al., 1981; Nikles et al., 1998; Cox and Klinger, 2011; Klinger and Cox, 2011) that enable us identify the personally meaningful goals, aspirations, and dreams of individuals and determine how mind wandering supports or undermines those goals. Given the highly personal nature of mind wandering, we need a new focus and new metrics. Science confirms: IQ is not equivalent to Intelligence. Have you always suspected that you’re more intelligent than your IQ gives you credit for?
It turns out that science is on your side! The researchers at the University of Western Ontario have recently demonstrated that intellectual capabilities cannot be reduced to a single number. According to Dr. Adrian Owen, the study’s principal investigator, “…The whole concept of IQ… is a myth.” In order to arrive at this conclusion, Dr.
Systems thinking. Impression of systems thinking about society A system is composed of interrelated parts or components (structures) that cooperate in processes (behavior).
Natural systems include biological entities, ocean currents, the climate, the solar system and ecosystems. Designed systems include airplanes, software systems, technologies and machines of all kinds, government agencies and business systems. Systems Thinking has at least some roots in the General System Theory that was advanced by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1940s and furthered by Ross Ashby in the 1950s. The term Systems Thinking is sometimes used as a broad catch-all heading for the process of understanding how systems behave, interact with their environment and influence each other. Alex Wissner-Gross: A new equation for intelligence. G factor (psychometrics) The g factor (short for "general factor") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities.
It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor. The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests. The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century.
Mental tests may be designed to measure different aspects of cognition. The Heritability of Intelligence: Not What You Think. One of the longest standing assumptions about the nature of human intelligence has just been seriously challenged. According to the traditional “investment” theory, intelligence can be classified into two main categories: fluid and crystallized. Intellectual Myths. Myth #1 - Now that the intelligences have been identified, researchers should develop tests to measure these intelligences.Reality #1 - MI theory is a critique of the standard psychometric approach wherein researchers test a construct; as such, Myth #1 is inconsistent with one of the major tenets of the theory.
On the other hand, assessments in rich, real life contexts can be quite helpful. In this respect, one should consult some of the example Good Practices on this website, such as Project Spectrum and Explorama. Multi-agent system. Simple reflex agent Learning agent Concept Multi-agent systems consist of agents and their environment. Typically multi-agent systems research refers to software agents. However, the agents in a multi-agent system could equally well be robots, humans or human teams. Intelligence ambiante. Apps for Multiple Intelligences.
Ambient intelligence. An (expected) evolution of computing from 1960–2010. In computing, ambient intelligence (AmI) refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people. Ambient intelligence is a vision on the future of consumer electronics, telecommunications and computing that was originally developed in the late 1990s for the time frame 2010–2020.
In an ambient intelligence world, devices work in concert to support people in carrying out their everyday life activities, tasks and rituals in an easy, natural way using information and intelligence that is hidden in the network connecting these devices (see Internet of Things). As these devices grow smaller, more connected and more integrated into our environment, the technology disappears into our surroundings until only the user interface remains perceivable by users.
Intelligence distribuée. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Un vol d'étourneaux maintient sa cohérence avec un ensemble de règles simples au niveau individuel. L'intelligence distribuée désigne l'apparition de phénomènes cohérents à l'échelle d'une population dont les individus agissent selon des règles simples. L'interaction ou la synergie entre actions individuelles simples peut de façons variées permettre l'émergence de formes, organisations, ou comportements collectifs, complexes ou cohérents, tandis que les individus eux se comportent à leur échelle indépendamment de toute règle globale. C'est l'indépendance entre d'une part les actions et règles qui régissent les individus et de l'autre la forme ou la dynamique collective, qui est au cœur du concept d'intelligence distribuée : comment cette cohérence globale apparaît-elle alors qu'elle n'est ni inscrite au niveau de l'individu, ni le résultat de "décisions communes", ni encore "commandée" par une "intelligence" centrale ?
ADIT : Leader européen de l’Intelligence Stratégique. RÉFLEXIONS SUR L’INTELLIGENCE STRATÉGIQUE. Par Clark G. KHADIGE, dba, desg. ASE Intelligence strategique - 6-Collective Intelligence. Forms of Collective Intelligence. There are many forms, manifestation of CI, and correspondingly, many “tribes” of its practitioners. This is an abbreviated overview. A more detailed inventory by Tom Atlee can be found here. a. Dialogic CI — A diverse group of participants suspend their old mental models and engage in dialogue that values the emergent whole higher than its parts.
Variations of this approach include Bohmian dialogue, “generative conversation” (Otto Scharmer) and “enlightened communications” (Andrew Cohen). b. L'intelligence du coeur. Category:Collective intelligence. Intelligence amplification. Collaborative intelligence. Collaborative intelligence characterizes multi-agent, distributed systems where each agent, human or machine, is uniquely positioned, with autonomy to contribute to a problem-solving network.
On intelligence: spies and secrecy in an open world - Robert David Steele - Google Books. The World Centre for New Thinking. PASS theory of intelligence. Description Based on A. R. The height of intelligence. Tall people are smarter. Valentin Turchin. Valentin Fyodorovich Turchin (Russian: Валенти́н Фёдорович Турчи́н, 1931 – 7 April 2010) was a Soviet and American cybernetician and computer scientist. He developed the Refal programming language, the theory of metasystem transitions and the notion of supercompilation.
Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework - 1962 (AUGMENT,3906,) 4. Category:Factors related to intelligence.
Intelligence analysis. Why We Need to Redefine Intelligence - HBR IdeaCast. I² Home page. Structure of Intelligence Table of Contents. Human Intelligence: biographical profiles, current controversies, resources for teachers. 01 amendements au glossaire des qualificatifs de l intelligence 3. Category:Intelligence by type. Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory. The MindHub - The Mindhub - Meet Dr. Kevin McGrew, PHD. Cattell-Horn-Carroll CHC (Gf-Gc) Theory: Past, Present & Future. Fluid and crystallized intelligence. Three stratum theory. Swarm intelligence. Guilford's Structure of Intellect. Convergent and divergent production. Triarchic theory of intelligence.
Category:Animal intelligence. Group intelligence. Animal Intelligence.