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Smart power. In international relations, the term smart power refers to the combination of hard power and soft power strategies.

Smart power

It is defined by the Center for Strategic and International Studies as "an approach that underscores the necessity of a strong military, but also invests heavily in alliances, partnerships, and institutions of all levels to expand American influence and establish legitimacy of American action. "[1] Polarity in international relations. Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.

Polarity in international relations

It describes the nature of the international system at any given period of time. One generally distinguishes four types of systems: unipolarity, bipolarity, tripolarity, and multipolarity for four or more centers of power. The type of system is completely dependent on the distribution of power and influence of states in a region or globally. Superpower. A superpower is a state with a dominant position in international relations and is characterised by its unparalleled ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.


This is done through the means of both military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence. Traditionally superpowers are preeminent among the great powers (i.e as the USA is today). The term first applied to the British Empire, the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Energy superpower. An energy superpower is a nation that supplies large amounts of energy resources (crude oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) to a significant number of other states, and therefore has the potential to influence world markets to gain a political or economic advantage.

Energy superpower

It is used to describe Russia, and has been used with other countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada, Venezuela, Australia, and Iran.[1][2][3][4][5] Energy superpower status might be exercised, for example, by significantly influencing the price on global markets, or by withholding supplies.[6] The status of "energy superpower" should not be confused with that of "superpower".

Democratic deficit. A democratic deficit (or democracy deficit) occurs when ostensibly democratic organizations or institutions (particularly governments) fall short of fulfilling the principles of democracy in their practices or operation where representative and linked parliamentary integrity becomes widely discussed.[1] The phrase democratic deficit is cited as first being used by the Young European Federalists in their Manifesto in 1977,[2] which was drafted by Richard Corbett.

Democratic deficit

The phrase was also used by David Marquand in 1979, referring to the then European Economic Community, the forerunner of the European Union.[3] United Nations[edit]