High performance computing (HPC) The Blue Gene/P supercomputer at Argonne National Lab runs over 250,000 processors using normal data center air conditioning, grouped in 72 racks/cabinets connected by a high-speed optical network A supercomputer is a computer at the frontline of contemporary processing capacity – particularly speed of calculation which can happen at speeds of nanoseconds.
The use of multi-core processors combined with centralization is an emerging trend; one can think of this as a small cluster (the multicore processor in a smartphone, tablet, laptop, etc.) that both depends upon and contributes to the cloud. History The CDC 6600, released in 1964, was designed by Cray to be the fastest in the world by a large margin. While the supercomputers of the 1980s used only a few processors, in the 1990s, machines with thousands of processors began to appear both in the United States and in Japan, setting new computational performance records. Hardware and architecture Clusters. A computer cluster consists of a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.
Unlike grid computers, computer clusters have each node set to perform the same task, controlled and scheduled by software. The components of a cluster are usually connected to each other through fast local area networks ("LAN"), with each node (computer used as a server) running its own instance of an operating system. In most circumstances, all of the nodes use the same hardware and the same operating system, although in some setups (i.e. using Open Source Cluster Application Resources (OSCAR)), different operating systems can be used on each computer, and/or different hardware. They are usually deployed to improve performance and availability over that of a single computer, while typically being much more cost-effective than single computers of comparable speed or availability.
Message Passing Interface (MPI) History The message passing interface effort began in the summer of 1991 when a small group of researchers started discussions at a mountain retreat in Austria.
Out of that discussion came a Workshop on Standards for Message Passing in a Distributed Memory Environment held on April 29–30, 1992 in Williamsburg, Virginia. At this workshop the basic features essential to a standard message-passing interface were discussed, and a working group established to continue the standardization process. Jack Dongarra, Rolf Hempel, Tony Hey, and David W. Walker put forward a preliminary draft proposal in November 1992, this was known as MPI1. The MPI effort involved about 80 people from 40 organizations, mainly in the United States and Europe. The MPI standard defines the syntax and semantics of a core of library routines useful to a wide range of users writing portable message passing programs in Fortran and C.
Overview Pricing. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud.
It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers. Amazon EC2’s simple web service interface allows you to obtain and configure capacity with minimal friction. It provides you with complete control of your computing resources and lets you run on Amazon’s proven computing environment. Amazon EC2 reduces the time required to obtain and boot new server instances to minutes, allowing you to quickly scale capacity, both up and down, as your computing requirements change. Amazon EC2 changes the economics of computing by allowing you to pay only for capacity that you actually use. Introduction to Amazon EC2 (4:01) Amazon EC2 enables you to increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days. You have complete control of your instances.
You have the choice of multiple instance types, operating systems, and software packages. FAQ. Q: What is Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2)?
Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers. Q: What can I do with Amazon EC2? Just as Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) enables storage in the cloud, Amazon EC2 enables “compute” in the cloud. Amazon EC2’s simple web service interface allows you to obtain and configure capacity with minimal friction. Q: How can I get started with Amazon EC2? To sign up for Amazon EC2, click the “Sign up for This Web Service” button on the Amazon EC2 detail page. Q: Why am I asked to verify my phone number when signing up for Amazon EC2? Amazon EC2 registration requires you to have a valid phone number and email address on file with AWS in case we ever need to contact you.
Q: What can developers now do that they could not before? Q: How do I run systems in the Amazon EC2 environment? Q: How do I access my systems? HPC in the Cloud.