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NF-κB. Schematic diagram of NF-κB protein structure.

NF-κB

There are two structural classes of NF-κB proteins: class I (top) and class II (bottom). Both classes of proteins contain a N-terminalDNA-binding domain (DBD), which also serves as a dimerization interface to other NF-κB transcription factors and, in addition, binds to the inhibitory IκBα protein. The C-terminus of class I proteins contains a number of ankyrin repeats and has transrepression activity. In contrast, the C-terminus of class II proteins has a transactivation function.[1][2][3] NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

Discovery[edit] Structure[edit] All proteins of the NF-κB family share a Rel homology domain in their N-terminus. Members[edit] There are five proteins in the mammalian NF-κB family:[16] Below are the five human NF-κB family members: Species distribution and evolution[edit] Signaling[edit] eSkeletons. Autophagy: a target for retinoic acids. BioNumerics Seven tutorials. Phylogenetic_Tree_of_Life. Who Are The Extremophiles? Diatoms can be found living in a wide variety of extreme environments, including ancient Antarctic Ice.

Who Are The Extremophiles?

Some believe they may even exist on Europa and in interstellar dust. The above diatom, Surirella, was collected from the alkaline and hypersaline Mono Lake. Details An extremophile is an organism that thrives under "extreme" conditions. The term frequently refers to prokaryotes and is sometimes used interchangeably with Archaea. The term extremophile is relatively anthropocentric. Most terms used to describe extremophiles are generally straightforward. Acidophile: An organism that grows best at acidic (low) pH values. Cyanobacteria, the first ever oxygenic photosynthesizers, are said to be the source of chloroplasts in eukaryotes.

Endolith: An organism that lives inside rock or in the pores between mineral grains. Online Textbook of Bacteriology. PubMed Central Image Viewer. Welcome to Microbial Life, Second Edition. Society for General Microbiology. Micro-organisms affect every aspect of life on Earth.

Society for General Microbiology

Some microbes cause disease but the majority are completely harmless. These minute life forms are essential to the cycling of nutrients in the eco-systems of the planet. We need to understand the role of microbes in global terms, but there are many aspects of our daily lives where knowledge of microbiology can help us answer everyday questions such as How can I avoid flu? Should I have the HPV vaccine? And even... What happens to my poo when I go to the loo?

Biotechnology, which often uses microbes or their products, is a fast-growing area of science. Since microbes are of such biological, economic and social significance, it is important that microbiology is a part of everyone’s education. Download the climate change fact file from our Resources page Introducing Microbes Micro-organisms can be friend or foe but most importantly, we all need them to live! About microbes Microbe passports About microbe passports Microbes and food More information. College level textbooks. Written by Editor-in-Chief This page has links for downloading Cells, the textbook for cellular and molecular biology courses.

College level textbooks

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OK, now you can download the book (or parts of it). Download full book. Download Chapter 2 - Biomolecules. Learn Science at Nature.