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The history of the Internet began with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. The public was first introduced to the concepts that would lead to the Internet when a message was sent over the ARPANet from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles ( UCLA ), after the second piece of network equipment was installed at Stanford Research Institute ( SRI ). Packet switched networks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK , CYCLADES , Merit Network , Tymnet , and Telenet , were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols . The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking , in which multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks. In 1982, the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was standardized, and consequently, the concept of a world-wide network of interconnected TCP/IP networks, called the Internet, was introduced.
Network topology is the arrangement of the various elements ( links , nodes , etc.) of a computer [ 1 ] [ 2 ] or biological network . [ 3 ] Essentially, it is the topological [ 4 ] structure of a network, and may be depicted physically or logically. Physical topology refers to the placement of the network's various components, including device location and cable installation, while logical topology shows how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, and/or signal types may differ between two networks, yet their topologies may be identical. A good example is a local area network (LAN): Any given node in the LAN has one or more physical links to other devices in the network; graphically mapping these links results in a geometric shape that can be used to describe the physical topology of the network.
Now ubiquitous, in current usage the term cyberspace refers to the global network of interdependent information technology infrastructures, telecommunications networks and computer processing systems in which online communication takes place. [ 1 ] The term "cyberspace" was first used by the cyberpunk science fiction author William Gibson , [ 2 ] though the concept was described somewhat earlier, for example in the Vernor Vinge short story " True Names ", and even earlier in John M. Ford's novel Web of Angels.
Manuel Castells ( Spanish : Manuel Castells Oliván ; born 1942, Hellín , Albacete , Spain ) is a Spanish sociologist especially associated with research on the information society , communication and globalization . The 2000–09 research survey of the Social Sciences Citation Index ranks him as the world’s fifth most-cited social science scholar, and the foremost-cited communication scholar. [ 1 ] He was awarded the 2012 Holberg Prize , [ 2 ] for having "shaped our understanding of the political dynamics of urban and global economies in the network society." [ 3 ] [ edit ] Life Manuel Castells was raised primarily in Barcelona .
Castells is a professor of urban geography at Berkley. He has written a number of books and articles about geography, the city, and the information society, including a three-volume analysis of contemporary capitalism, titled The Information Age . Garnham (2004, p. 165) refers to this as “the most sophisticated version” of the theory of the information society. Castells' analysis involves economic, social, political, and cultural factors. I will focus on the economic, with a brief introduction to his analysis of space and the changing role of the nation state, and follow with an outline of some critiques of his work. Regrettably, this leaves much unmentioned, such as his theory of timeless time, of the social divides in modern cities and societies, or his examination of specific cases of social action in the context of what he calls the information city.
The term Network Society describes several different phenomena related to the social, political, economic and cultural changes caused by the spread of networked, digital information and communications technologies. A number of academics (see below) are credited with coining the term since the 1980s and several competing definitions exist. The intellectual origins of the idea can be traced back to the work of early social theorists such as Georg Simmel who analyzed the effect of modernization and industrial capitalism on complex patterns of affiliation, organization, production and experience. [ edit ] Origins The term network society , nettsamfunn , was coined in Norwegian by Stein Braten in his book Modeller av menneske og samfunn (1981).
Gilles Deleuze ( French: [ʒil dəløz] ; 18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death, wrote influentially on philosophy , literature , film , and fine art . His most popular works were the two volumes of Capitalism and Schizophrenia : Anti-Oedipus (1972) and A Thousand Plateaus (1980), both co-written with Félix Guattari . His metaphysical treatise Difference and Repetition (1968) is considered by many scholars to be his magnum opus . [ 2 ]
Rhizome is a philosophical concept developed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1972–1980) project. It is what Deleuze calls an "image of thought", based on the botanical rhizome , that apprehends multiplicities . [ edit ] Rhizome as a mode of knowledge and model for society Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari use the term "rhizome" and "rhizomatic" to describe theory and research that allows for multiple, non-hierarchical entry and exit points in data representation and interpretation. In A Thousand Plateaus , they oppose it to an arborescent conception of knowledge, which works with dualist categories and binary choices. A rhizome works with planar and trans-species connections, while an arborescent model works with vertical and linear connections.
Chapter 3: Deleuze and Guattari: Schizos, Nomads, Rhizomes We live today in the age of partial objects, bricks that have been shattered to bits, and leftovers... We no longer believe in a primordial totality that once existed, or in a final totality that awaits us at some future date (Deleuze and Guattari 1983: p.42) A theory does not totalize; it is an instrument for multiplication and it also multiplies itself... It is in the nature of power to totalize and ... theory is by nature opposed to power (Deleuze 1977a: p.208)
Bruno Latour ( French: [latuʁ] ; born 22 June 1947) is a French sociologist of science [ 1 ] and anthropologist [ 2 ] and an influential theorist in the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). [ 3 ] After teaching at the École des Mines de Paris ( Centre de Sociologie de l'Innovation ) from 1982 to 2006, he is now Professor at Sciences Po Paris (2006), [ 4 ] where he is the scientific director of the Sciences Po Medialab. On 13 March 2013, he was announced as the recipient of the 2013 Holberg Prize . [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] He is best known for his books We Have Never Been Modern (1991; English translation, 1993), Laboratory Life (with Steve Woolgar , 1979) and Science in Action (1987). [ 8 ] Although his studies of scientific practice were at one time associated with social constructionist [ 8 ] approaches to the philosophy of science, Latour has diverged significantly from such approaches.
Actor–network theory , often abbreviated as ANT , is an agent-based approach to social theory and research, originating in the field of science studies , which treats objects as part of social networks. Although it is best known for its controversial insistence on the agency of nonhumans , ANT is also associated with forceful critiques of conventional and critical sociology. Developed by science and technology studies scholars Michel Callon and Bruno Latour , the sociologist John Law , and others, it can more technically be described as a "material-semiotic" method. This means that it maps relations that are simultaneously material (between things) and semiotic (between concepts). It assumes that many relations are both material and semiotic.
Graham Harman (born May 9, 1968) is a professor at the American University in Cairo, Egypt. He is a contemporary philosopher of metaphysics, who attempts to reverse the linguistic turn of Western philosophy. Harman is associated with Speculative Realism in philosophy, which was the name of a workshop that also included the philosophers Ray Brassier , Iain Hamilton Grant , and Quentin Meillassoux . [ 2 ]
Niklas Luhmann (December 8, 1927 – November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist , and a prominent thinker in sociological systems theory . [ edit ] Biography Luhmann was born in Lüneburg , Lower Saxony , where his father's family had been running a brewery for several generations. After graduating from the Johanneum school in 1943, he was conscripted as a Luftwaffenhelfer in World War II and served for two years until, at the age of 17, he was taken prisoner of war by American troops in 1945. [ 3 ] After the war Luhmann studied law at the University of Freiburg from 1946 to 1949, when he obtained a law degree, and then began a career in Lüneburg's public administration. During a sabbatical in 1961, he went to Harvard , where he met and studied under Talcott Parsons , then the world's most influential social systems theorist.
Noe, Egon and Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted (2006) Combining Luhmann and Actor-Network Theory to see Farm Enterprises as Self-organizing Systems. Cybernetics and Human Knowing , 13 (1), pp. 34-48. This is the latest version of this item. From a rural, sociological point of view no social theories have so far been able to grasp the ontological complexity and special character of a farm enterprise as an entity in a really satisfying way. The contention of this paper is that a combination of Luhmann’s theory of social systems and the actor-network theory (ANT) of Latour, Callon, and Law offers a new and radical framework for understanding a farm as a self-organizing, heterogeneous system. Luhmann’s theory offers an approach to understand a farm as a self-organizing system (operating in meaning) that must produce and reproduce itself through demarcation from the surrounding world by selection of meaning.