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Conceptos Básicos

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Grayscale. Brightness. Tints and shades. In common language, the term "shade" can be generalized to furthermore encompass any varieties of a particular color, whether technically they are shades, tints, tones, or slightly different hues;[2] while the term "tint" can be generalized to refer to the any lighter or darker variation of a color (e.g.

Tints and shades

Tinted windows).[3] When mixing colored light (additive color models), the achromatic mixture of spectrally balanced red, green and blue (RGB) is always white, not gray or black. When we mix colorants, such as the pigments in paint mixtures, a color is produced which is always darker and lower in chroma, or saturation, than the parent colors. This moves the mixed color toward a neutral color—a gray or near-black. Lightness. Three hues in the Munsell color model.


Each color differs in value from top to bottom in equal perception steps. The right column undergoes a dramatic change in perceived color. Color. Color (American English) or colour (British English; see spelling differences) is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, blue, yellow, and others.


Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light power versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects or materials based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates. Optics. Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.[1] Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light.


Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.[1] Some phenomena depend on the fact that light has both wave-like and particle-like properties. Explanation of these effects requires quantum mechanics. When considering light's particle-like properties, the light is modelled as a collection of particles called "photons". Quantum optics deals with the application of quantum mechanics to optical systems. Light. A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light.


The longer wavelengths (red) and the shorter wavelengths (blue) get separated Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The word usually refers to visible light, which is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight.[1] Visible light is usually defined as having a wavelength in the range of 400 nanometres (nm), or 400×10−9 m, to 700 nanometres – between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths).[2][3] Often, infrared and ultraviolet are also called light. Óptica geométrica. Formación de un arco iris por medio de la óptica geométrica.

Óptica geométrica

La óptica geométrica usa la noción de rayo luminoso; es una aproximación del comportamiento que corresponde a las ondas electromagnéticas (la luz) cuando los objetos involucrados son de tamaño mucho mayor que la longitud de onda usada; ello permite despreciar los efectos derivados de la difracción, comportamiento ligado a la naturaleza ondulatoria de la luz. Luz. Se llama luz (del latín lux, lucis) a la parte de la radiación electromagnética que puede ser percibida por el ojo humano.


En física, el término luz se usa en un sentido más amplio e incluye todo el campo de la radiación conocido como espectro electromagnético, mientras que la expresión luz visible señala específicamente la radiación en el espectro visible. Cámara oscura. La cámara oscura es un instrumento óptico que permite obtener una proyección plana de una imagen externa sobre la zona interior de su superficie.

Cámara oscura

Constituyó uno de los dispositivos ancestrales que condujeron al desarrollo de la fotografía. Los aparatos fotográficos actuales heredaron la palabra cámara de las antiguas cámaras oscuras. Consiste en una caja cerrada y un pequeño agujero por el que entra una mínima cantidad de luz que proyecta en la pared opuesta la imagen del exterior. Si se dota con papel fotográfico se convierte en una cámara fotográfica estenopeica. Esquema de una cámara oscura del siglo XVIII.

Paper size. Canons of page construction. The canons of page construction are a set of principles in the field of book design used to describe the ways that page proportions, margins and type areas (print spaces) of books are constructed.

Canons of page construction

The notion of canons, or laws of form, of book page construction was popularized by Jan Tschichold in the mid to late twentieth century, based on the work of J. A. van de Graaf, Raúl M. Rosarivo, Hans Kayser, and others.[1] Tschichold wrote, “Though largely forgotten today, methods and rules upon which it is impossible to improve have been developed for centuries. To produce perfect books these rules have to be brought to life and applied.”[2] Kayser's 1946 Ein harmonikaler Teilungskanon[3] had earlier used the term canon in this context. Typographers and book designers apply these principles to this day, with variations related to the availability of standardized paper sizes, and the diverse types of commercially printed books.[4] Van de Graaf canon[edit] Golden canon[edit] See also[edit]

Category:Digital typography. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This category contains articles on computer-related typography topics.

Category:Digital typography

The main article for this category is Digital typography. Subcategories This category has the following 8 subcategories, out of 8 total. Pages in category "Digital typography" The following 58 pages are in this category, out of 58 total. Category:Page layout. Letterpress printing. This article is about the art and technique of relief printing with a printing press. For a historical account of its origins and societal impact, see printing press. The general form of letterpress printing with a platen press, showing the relationship between the form (the type), the pressure, the ink, and the paper A printer inspecting a large form of type on a cylinder press.