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Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927) is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of Massachusetts Institute of Technology 's AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy . [ edit ] Biography Marvin Lee Minsky was born in New York City to a Jewish family, [ 1 ] where he attended The Fieldston School and the Bronx High School of Science . He later attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts .
In search of a new car, the player picks a door, say 1. The game host then opens one of the other doors, say 3, to reveal a goat and offers to let the player pick door 2 instead of door 1. The Monty Hall problem is a probability puzzle loosely based on the American television game show Let's Make a Deal and named after the show's original host, Monty Hall . The problem, also called the Monty Hall paradox , is a veridical paradox because the result appears impossible but is demonstrably true. The Monty Hall problem, in its usual interpretation, is mathematically equivalent to the earlier Three Prisoners problem , and both bear some similarity to the much older Bertrand's box paradox . The problem was originally posed in a letter by Steve Selvin to the American Statistician in 1975 ( Selvin 1975a ) ( Selvin 1975b ).
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The Handmaid's Tale is a dystopian novel , a work of science fiction or speculative fiction , [ 1 ] written by Canadian author Margaret Atwood [ 2 ] [ 3 ] and first published by McClelland and Stewart in 1985. Set in the near future, in a totalitarian Christian theocracy which has overthrown the United States government, The Handmaid's Tale explores themes of women in subjugation and the various means by which they gain agency . The novel's title was inspired by Geoffrey Chaucer 's The Canterbury Tales , which is a series of connected stories ("The Merchant's Tale", "The Parson's Tale", etc.). [ 4 ] The Handmaid's Tale won the 1985 Governor General's Award and the first Arthur C.
Bicameralism (the philosophy of "two-chamberedness") is a hypothesis in psychology that argues that the human brain once assumed a state in which cognitive functions were divided between one part of the brain which appears to be "speaking", and a second part which listens and obeys—a bicameral mind . The term was coined by psychologist Julian Jaynes , who presented the idea in his 1976 book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind , wherein he made the case that a bicameral mentality was the normal and ubiquitous state of the human mind only as recently as 3000 years ago. [ edit ] Brain hemispheres and bicamerality
Vernor Steffen Vinge ( pron.: / ˈ v ɪ n dʒ iː / ; born October 2, 1944) is a retired San Diego State University (SDSU) Professor of Mathematics , computer scientist , and science fiction author. He is best known for his Hugo Award -winning novels and novellas A Fire Upon the Deep (1992), A Deepness in the Sky (1999), Rainbows End (2006), Fast Times at Fairmont High (2002) and The Cookie Monster (2004), as well as for his 1984 novel The Peace War and his 1993 essay "The Coming Technological Singularity", in which he argues that the creation of superhuman artificial intelligence will mark the point at which "the human era will be ended," such that no current models of reality are sufficient to predict beyond it. Within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence. Shortly after, the human era will be ended.
In information theory , entropy is a measure of the uncertainty in a random variable . [ 1 ] In this context, the term usually refers to the Shannon entropy , which quantifies the expected value of the information contained in a message. [ 2 ] Entropy is typically measured in bits , nats , or bans . [ 3 ] Shannon entropy is the average unpredictability in a random variable, which is equivalent to its information content . The concept was introduced by Claude E. Shannon in his 1948 paper " A Mathematical Theory of Communication ". [ 4 ] Shannon entropy provides an absolute limit on the best possible lossless encoding or compression of any communication, assuming that [ 5 ] the communication may be represented as a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables .