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A fallacy is incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity , or more generally, a lack of soundness . Fallacies are either formal fallacies or informal fallacies . [ edit ] Formal fallacies
Als Fehlschluss oder Trugschluss ( lateinisch fallacia ) oder Paralogismus bezeichnet man einen Schluss , bei dem die abgeleitete Aussage nicht aus den explizit angegebenen oder implizit angenommenen Voraussetzungen folgt. Dies bedeutet nicht sofort, dass die abgeleitete Aussage auch falsch ist: Ein Fehlschluss gibt keinerlei Aufschluss über den tatsächlichen Wahrheitsgehalt der abgeleiteten Aussage. Ein Fehlschluss beruht auf einem Irrtum in der Anwendung von Schlussregeln , er ist logisch nicht korrekt . Gelegentlich werden aber auch formal gültige Schlüsse aus falschen Voraussetzungen als Fehlschlüsse bezeichnet. Klassifizierung von Fehlschlüssen [ Bearbeiten ] Ein mit Absicht herbeigeführter Fehlschluss wird auch als Fangschluss , Scheinargument oder als Sophismus bezeichnet, ein unbeabsichtigter Fehlschluss wird auch Paralogismus genannt.
Dieser Artikel enthält eine Zusammenstellung der verschiedenen Typen von Argumenten . Deduktive Argumente [ Bearbeiten ] Als Argumentum ad veritatem (Wahrheitsbeweis) werden deduktive (oder deduktiv gültige) Argumente bezeichnet, bei denen die Konklusion logisch aus den Prämissen folgt, die Konklusion also wahr ist, falls die Prämissen wahr sind. Logisches Nutzwertargument [ Bearbeiten ] Das logische Nutzwertargument besteht aus zwei oder mehr Prämissen sowie der logischen Konklusion.
Red herring is an English-language idiom that commonly refers to a logical fallacy that misleads or detracts from the actual issue. [ 1 ] It is also a literary device employed by writers that leads readers or characters towards a false conclusion, often used in mystery or detective fiction.
"Ad populum" redirects here. For the Catholic liturgical term, see Versus populum .
Mike Godwin (2010) Godwin's law (also known as Godwin's Rule of Nazi Analogies or Godwin's Law of Nazi Analogies [ 1 ] [ 2 ] ) is an observation made by Mike Godwin in 1990 [ 2 ] that has become an Internet adage . It states: "As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches 1 ." [ 2 ] [ 3 ] In other words, Godwin observed that, given enough time, in any online discussion—regardless of topic or scope—someone inevitably makes a comparison to Hitler or the Nazis.
Blaise Pascal Pascal's Wager (also known as Pascal's Gamble ) is an argument in apologetic philosophy which was devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher , mathematician , and physicist , Blaise Pascal . It posits that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or does not exist . Given the possibility that God actually does exist and assuming the infinite gain or loss associated with belief in God or with unbelief, a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does not actually exist, such a person will have only a finite loss (some pleasures, luxury, etc.). [ 1 ] Pascal formulated the wager within a Christian framework.
Existentialism is a term applied to the work of a number of late 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual. [ 4 ] In existentialism, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude", or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world. [ 5 ] Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. [ 6 ] [ 7 ]
Existential psychotherapy is a philosophical method of therapy that operates on the belief that inner conflict within a person is due to that individual's confrontation with the givens of existence. [ 1 ] These givens, as noted by Irvin D.
Philosophical Consultancy is a relatively new movement in philosophy which applies philosophical thinking and debating to the resolution of a person's problem. Gerd Achenbach and Ad Hoogendijk are two, German and Dutch philosophers who established themselves as consultant philosophers in the ninety eighties(Achenbach 1984, 2002; Hoogendijk 1988) and led the way to a number of other developments all over the world. They proposed an alternative to psychotherapeutic culture by working purely in the arena of existential investigation with their `visitors' (as they call their clients or patients).
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Phaedo, by Plato
The Discovery of Slowness (original German title: Die Entdeckung der Langsamkeit ) is a novel by Sten Nadolny , written under a double conceit: first, as a novelization of the life of British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin , and second as a hymn of praise to "slowness," a quality which Nadolny's fictional Franklin possesses in abundance. Published in Germany in 1983, its fame spread through the English translation by Ralph Freedman , first published in the United States by Viking Penguin in 1987; in Nadolny's native Germany it has also been the subject of television programs, experimental films, and even an opera composed by Giorgio Battistelli . "Slowness" — in German, "Langsamkeit" — had, before Nadolny's novel been primarily associated with mental retardation . In Nadolny's world, however, this seeming disability is in fact a powerful asset; the possessor of "slowness" can afford to wait, because he must wait.
how we want to live?
Thomas Metzinger (2011)
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget .
The Thomas theorem is a theory of sociology which was formulated in 1928 by W.