Neanderthals had different bodies than we do. In general, they were stockier and shorter, for instance. And there were other physical differences, as well. It's hard to say what these differences meant in practice but it's fun to speculate. You could build up a pretty good about how those short, study bodies might have helped Neanderthals be better adapted to cold. Or, you could look at the shape of a male Neanderthal's voice box, and think about how that shape might affect the sounds that came out.
“Hominin – the group consisting of modern humans, extinct human species and all our immediate ancestors (including members of the genera Homo , Australopithecus , Paranthropus and Ardipithecus ).” Australian Museum . A lot had happened this year with hominin research and some would redefine conventional understandings of this group. Below is a list of new studies that came out this year that I find quite interesting on hominin.
Evolutionary tree-phylogenies can be constructed only with those species that are recognized. Currently, the group of recognized hominid species is substantially incomplete. Some argue existing fossils may represent species other than those already formally named.
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Newly discovered stone artifacts that suggest humanity left Africa through the Arabian Peninsula could re-write early human history. More than 100 stone tools discovered in Oman showed that early humans were already living in southern Arabia much earlier than scientists had thought. Modern humans had first lived in Africa over 200,000 years ago but scientists believe that they didn't migrate worldwide until 40,000 to 70,000 years ago. The new study by an international team of researchers, show that the stone artifacts are at least 100,000 years old, which could blow that long believed theory out of the water. "After a decade of searching in southern Arabia for some clue that might help us understand early human expansion, at long last we've found the smoking gun of their exit from Africa," said lead researcher Jeffrey Rose, a paleolithic archaeologist at the University of Birmingham in England.
The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved . These theories are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the emergence of human language . The timeline of human evolution spans approximately 7 million years, [ citation needed ] from the separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. The first 3 million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus , the following 2 million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history of actual human species (the Paleolithic ).
Online Biology Dictionary Homo cepranensis is a name created ( Mallegni et al. 2003 ) on the basis on a single skullcap dating to 800,000–900,000 BP , unearthed in a road construction project near Ceprano, Italy in 1994 ( Manzi et al. 2001 ). The fact that the material was of human origin was recognized by Italo Biddittu of Rome's Institute of Paleontology, who happened to be present when the remains came to light. "Ceprano Man" has not, however, been accepted as distinct from the contemporary and far better documented Homo erectus . And, in fact, there really seems to be no good reason to name a new hominid on the basis of a single, not particularly distinctive, skull fragment.
While listing personality disorders is a fairly simple and straight-forward matter, listing personality types is infinitely more complex. When talking of personality types we enter the field of theories... and there are several good ones! One of the most interesting theories is Keirsey's Temperament Sorter, inspired by Hippocrates' and Plato 's ancient studies of temperament. The 16 types which result from the 4 temperaments correlate with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)*, which is based on the typological theories by Carl Gustav Jung . Click on any of the 16 personality types to read a more detailed description. The 4 Temperaments
-This post is excerpted, with changes, from the book Darwin, God and the Meaning of Life by Steve Stewart-Williams - available now from Amazon.com , Amazon.ca , and Amazon.uk . Evolutionary theory answers one of the most profound and fundamental questions human beings have ever asked themselves, a question that has plagued reflective minds for as long as reflective minds have existed in the universe: The question was answered in 1859 by the English naturalist Charles Darwin, and the answer can be stated in just six words: "What?"
After extracting ancient DNA from the 40,000-year-old bones of Neanderthals, scientists have obtained a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome, yielding important new insights into the evolution of modern humans. Among the findings, published in the May 7 issue of Science , is evidence that shortly after early modern humans migrated out of Africa, some of them interbred with Neanderthals, leaving bits of Neanderthal DNA sequences scattered through the genomes of present-day non-Africans. "We can now say that, in all probability, there was gene flow from Neanderthals to modern humans," said the paper's first author, Richard E. (Ed) Green of the University of California, Santa Cruz. Green, now an assistant professor of biomolecular engineering in the Baskin School of Engineering at UC Santa Cruz, began working on the Neanderthal genome as a postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
Evolutionary biologists use a cladogram , the treelike diagram of evolutionary branches or clades, to organize species into lines of evolutionary descent across time. Biologists use three types of evidence to deduce evolutionary connections: genetics, morphology, and geologic dating. (Behavior, normally a key part of evolutionary studies, can only be inferred in extinct species — for example, by examining the ecology in which the species flourished and the species adaptations for eating and locomotion.) Analyses of primate fossils and the genetic relatedness of living primates converge to the conclusion that humans and chimpanzees branched from a common ancestor about 7 million years ago. DNA recovered from several uncontaminated Neanderthalensis fossils indicated that modern humans and extinct neanderthals diverged about 400,000 years ago; but more recent studies show that they must have interbred within Europe or the Middle East since then.
Haeckel 's Paleontological Tree of Vertebrates (c. 1879). The evolutionary history of species has been described as a " tree ", with many branches arising from a single trunk. While Haeckel's tree is somewhat outdated, it illustrates clearly the principles that more complex modern reconstructions can obscure. The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the development of human species , and the evolution of humans' ancestors . It includes a brief explanation of some animals , species or genera , which are possible ancestors of Homo sapiens .
n. b. This is a story about my work on recent human evolution, describing some of the main results and how the work came about. The story refers to my paper (with Gregory Cochran, Eric Wang, Henry Harpending, and Robert Moyzis), "Recent acceleration of human adaptive evolution," which came out in December, 2007. L ike most good stories in biology, this one begins with Darwin. Darwin was always very interested in animal breeding, which he considered the best analogy for the process of natural selection. Of course, if you're breeding livestock and want to select for some characteristics, it is important to select from as large a herd as possible, because large populations have more variation in them.
Sources useful in locating published material on the process of organic change or development by which human beings have acquired the distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics that they have today. An update of TB 73-13, this guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on human evolution in the Library of Congress. Not an exhaustive treatment of the subject, this Tracer Bullet , as the name of the series implies, is designed to put the reader "on target."
(Newser) – The Tibetan people have evolved to suit their high-altitude home with astonishing speed, say researchers. Biologists who compared the genomes of Tibetans living in villages up to 3 miles above sea level with Han Chinese found that 30 genes had undergone adaptive mutations in the 3,000 years since lowland Chinese first settled what is now Tibet, the New York Times reports. One gene found in almost 90% of Tibetans affects the production of red blood cells, allowing them to thrive in high-altitude, low-oxygen environments without the mountain sickness and lowered fertility that affects lowlanders. The changes are the fastest-known example of human evolution, the researchers say, although some archeologists argue that the Tibetan-Chinese split happened much earlier than 3,000 years ago. <p style="text-align:right;color:#A8A8A8"></p>