Becoming a Critic Of Your Thinking. Learning the Art of Critical Thinking There is nothing more practical than sound thinking. No matter what your circumstance or goals, no matter where you are, or what problems you face, you are better off if your thinking is skilled. As a manager, leader, employee, citizen, lover, friend, parent---in every realm and situation of your life, good thinking pays off. Poor thinking, in turn, inevitably causes problems, wastes time and energy, engenders frustration and pain. Critical thinking is the disciplined art of ensuring that you use the best thinking you are capable of in any set of circumstances.
The general goal of thinking is to “figure out the lay of the land” in any situation we are in. We all have multiple choices to make. What is really going on in this or that situation? Successfully responding to such questions is the daily work of thinking. Ask yourself these--rather unusual--questions: What have you learned about how you think? Here is one format you can use: 2. 3. 4. Transforming Midterm Evaluations into a Metacognitive Pause. Midterm evaluations often tip toward students’ (unexamined) likes and dislikes. By leveraging the weight of the midterm pause and inviting students to reflect on their development, midterm evaluations can become more learning-centered. Cued by our language, students can become aware of a distinction—that we’re not asking what they like, but what is helping them learn. This opportunity for students to learn about their learning yields valuable insights that not only inform instructors about the effects of our methods, but also ground students in their own learning processes, deepening their confidence in and commitment to their development in the second half of the course.
Last semester, I taught a research-based contemporary poetry course with a steep learning curve—due to our rather difficult, graduate-level texts and students’ lack of prior experience. Repice observed that “This set of questions calls attention to the ways you are learning. Lee, Virgina S. Nilson, Linda B. (2016.) Classroom Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies for Teachers Revised SR 09.08.10. Cognitive Strategies. A cognitive strategy is a mental process or procedure for accomplishing a particular cognitive goal. For example, if students' goals are to write good essays, their cognitive strategies might include brainstorming and completing an outline.
The cognitive strategies that students use influence how they will perform in school, as well as what they will accomplish outside of school. Researchers have found that effective learners and thinkers use more effective strategies for reading, writing, problem solving, and reasoning than ineffective learners and thinkers. Cognitive strategies can be general or specific (Pressley & Woloshyn, 1995). Strategies have been distinguished from skills.
One factor that determines whether students use a strategy is whether students know what the strategy is and how to use it. The role of effective strategies in learning and thinking is emphasized by most theories of learning and development. Ineffective reasoners tend to be biased when evaluating evidence. Teaching Concepts: Cognitive Strategy. Goal Setting | Motivation | Cognitive Strategy | Cooperative Learning | Assessment Cognitive Strategy Excerpted from Chapter 9 of Biehler/Snowman, PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO TEACHING, 8/e, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1997. The Nature of Learning Tactics and Strategies (pp. 334-340) Types of Tactics Using Learning Strategies Effectively (pp. 340-343) The Components of a Learning StrategyResearch on Learning Strategy Training: Reciprocal Teaching Suggestions for Teaching in Your Classroom (pp. 348-351) Resources for Further Investigation: Learning Tactics and Strategies (p. 354) The Nature of Learning Tactics and Strategies A learning strategy is a general plan that a learner formulates for achieving a somewhat distant academic goal (like getting an A on your next exam).
A learning tactic is a specific technique (like a memory aid or a form of notetaking) that a learner uses to accomplish an immediate objective (such as to understand the concepts in a textbook chapter and how they relate to one another). Top. Response to Intervention | Math | Math Problem Solving. Solving an advanced math problem independently requires the coordination of a number of complex skills.
The student must have the capacity to reliably implement the specific steps of a particular problem-solving process, or cognitive strategy. At least as important, though, is that the student must also possess the necessary metacognitive skills to analyze the problem, select an appropriate strategy to solve that problem from an array of possible alternatives, and monitor the problem-solving process to ensure that it is carried out correctly.
The following strategies combine both cognitive and metacognitive elements (Montague, 1992; Montague & Dietz, 2009). First, the student is taught a 7-step process for attacking a math word problem (cognitive strategy). Second, the instructor trains the student to use a three-part self-coaching routine for each of the seven problem-solving steps (metacognitive strategy). Reading the problem. References Burns, M. Cognitive Learning Strategies | Wentworth Institute of Technology. Promoting Student Metacognition. 1219 6024 1 PB. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects. 31958 111388 1 PB. 10. Module 4: Metacognitive Strategies for Reading and Writing. Module Introduction No matter what degree you are pursuing or what career you plan to go into; reading and writing skills are essential.
Think of just about every job ad you see, usually they say that "Excellent communication skills" are a highly desired trait. What exactly are "excellent communication skills? " Well, at their core, it is the ability to clearly express your thoughts and ideas both verbally and in writing. Another vital skill that employers need from their employees today is the ability to research, review and draw conclusions from data, reports and other informative sources.
In order to do this, basic reading skills aren't always enough. A student or an employee must be able to read as well as understand and synthesize the information that they come into contact with. In this module we will investigate and try out some methods for active reading and conscious writing that you may not have come into contact with before. Activity 1: Reading Comprehension Strategies Know. METACOGNITION. METACOGNITION: Study Strategies, Monitoring, and Motivation By William Peirce © 2003 A greatly expanded text version of a workshop presented November 17, 2004, at's Community College Outline II. Metacognition and Three Types of Knowledge III. Metacognition and Study Strategies IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. A.Some Sample Metacognitive Strategies B.Strategies for Instructors to Use in Teaching Textbook C.Strategies for Students to Use for Textbook D.Sample Reflective Topics for Self-Monitoring and Self-Assessment IX. I. To increase their metacognitive abilities, students need to possess and be aware of three kinds of content knowledge: declarative, procedural, and conditional.
IV. C. V. Students “enter the higher levels of education with . . . strategies that handicap them in achieving success.” The use of learning strategies is linked to motivation. VII. 1. The tasks that students need to perform vary not only among disciplines but among instructors in the same discipline. 3. 4. VIII. A. 1. 3. 4. 5. A. Metacognative Strategies. Metacognitive Strategies Introduction This site provides a detailed description of metacognitive strategies.
This site also explains why metacognitive strategies are helpful for students who have learning problems, it provides tips on teaching metacognitive strategies, it includes a step-by-step outline for how to develop your own metacognitive strategies, and it also provides a list of field-tested metacognitive strategies categorized by math concept area. You can access any of the listed topics simply by clicking on the appropriate title.
This site complements the instructional video model for Teaching Metacognitive Strategies, which you can access by clicking on the Instructional Strategies site found on the main navigational page. You can also access the video model by clicking on the icon entitled Metacognitive Strategies Video found in the section titled "How Do I Teach Them. " What Are They? [ back to top ] How Do They Positively Impact Students Who Have Learning Problems? Yes! Return. Response to Intervention | Math | Math Problem Solving. Metacognition And Learning: Strategies For Instructional Design. Do you know how to learn? Many people don’t. Specifically, they don’t know how to look inward to examine how they learn and to judge which methods are effective.
That’s where metacognitive strategies come in. They are techniques that help people become more successful learners. Shouldn’t this be a crucial goal of instructional design? Improved metacognition can facilitate both formal and informal learning. But let’s start at the beginning. What is metacognition? Metacognition is often referred to as “thinking about thinking.” The Two Processes of Metacognition Many theorists organize the skills of metacognition into two complementary processes that make it easier to understand and remember.
Metacognition and Expertise Many experts cannot explain the skills they use to elicit expert performance. Examples of Metacognition Skills You May Use Successful learners typically use metacognitive strategies whenever they learn. Metacognitive Strategies Ask Questions. References: Response to Intervention | Math | Math Problem Solving. Metacognition ELI. Stylus/Stylus Publishing - Using Reflection and Metacognition to Improve Student Learning: Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy. Table of Contents: AcknowledgmentsForeword—James Rhem1) Reflective Pedagogies and the Metacognitive Turn in College Teaching—Naomi Silver2) Make Exams Worth More than the Grade: Using Exam Wrappers to Promote Metacognition—Marsha C. Lovett3) Improving Critical-Thinking Skills in Introductory Biology Through Quality Practice and Metacognition—Paula P.
Lemons, Julie A. Reynolds, Amanda J. Curtin-Soydan, and Ahrash N. EJ1029627. Schoenfeld metacognition. Exam Wrappers. All too often, when students receive back a graded exam, they focus on a single feature – the score they earned. While this focus on “the grade” is understandable, it can lead students to miss out on several learning opportunities that such assessment can provide: identifying their own individual areas of strength and weakness to guide further study;reflecting on the adequacy of their preparation time and the appropriateness of their study strategies; andcharacterizing the nature of their errors to find any recurring patterns that could be addressed.
So, to encourage students to process their graded exams more deeply, several faculty members across the university have devised exam wrappers, short handouts that students complete when an exam is turned back to them. These exam wrappers direct students to review their performance (and the instructor’s feedback) with an eye toward adapting their future learning.
Examples from Mellon College of Science courses: Metacognition-ELI. Teaching Metacognition. This webpage is a summary, written by Carol Ormand, of Marsha Lovett's presentation at the 2008 Educause Learning Initiative conference. Dr. Lovett's slides and a podcast of her presentation can be accessed via the conference website. Teaching Metacognition Improves Learning Metacognition is a critically important, yet often overlooked component of learning. Effective learning involves planning and goal-setting, monitoring one's progress, and adapting as needed. All of these activities are metacognitive in nature. Teaching students that their ability to learn is mutable Teaching planning and goal-setting Giving students ample opportunities to practice monitoring their learning and adapting as necessary Self-Regulated Learning Expert learners consider their learning goals, plan accordingly, and monitor their own learning as they carry out their plans.
Expert learners engage in what we call Self-Regulated Learning. Expert Learners Can Be Made Accurate self-monitoring is quite difficult. CAPABLE: Calculus Acquisition through Problem and Activity Based Learning. TCM 2015 - Encouraging Metacognition in the Math Classroom. Getting Metacognition Out of the Closet | Home. Metacognition is not a common word. In fact, every time I typed "metacognition" or "metacognitive" in this article it was automatically underlined in red. Microsoft doesn't consider it a word, a sad state of affairs for such an important term. Metacognitive strategies have been linked with successful and meaningful learning. Furthermore, there are a number of things teachers can do to help foster metacognition among their students.
What is Metacognition? Metacognition is often described simplistically as "thinking about your thinking". NCREL, the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, explains that metacognition consists of three basic elements: developing a plan of action, monitoring the plan, and evaluating the plan. 1) Developing a plan of action What in my prior knowledge will help me with this particular task? 2) Maintaining/monitoring the plan Did I understand what I just heard, read or saw? 3) Evaluating the plan Did my particular strategy produce what I had expected? Teaching Metacognative Strategies. Fact Sheet: Metacognitive Processes | Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy (TEAL)
Metacognition is one’s ability to use prior knowledge to plan a strategy for approaching a learning task, take necessary steps to problem solve, reflect on and evaluate results, and modify one’s approach as needed. It helps learners choose the right cognitive tool for the task and plays a critical role in successful learning. What Is Metacognition? Metacognition refers to awareness of one’s own knowledge—what one does and doesn’t know—and one’s ability to understand, control, and manipulate one’s cognitive processes (Meichenbaum, 1985). It includes knowing when and where to use particular strategies for learning and problem solving as well as how and why to use specific strategies.
Cognitive strategies are the basic mental abilities we use to think, study, and learn (e.g., recalling information from memory, analyzing sounds and images, making associations between or comparing/contrasting different pieces of information, and making inferences or interpreting text). What’s the Research?