Tam. 10. Learning Theory. Robert Gagne's Theory The Basics Robert Gagne was an experimental psychologist who was concerned with learning and instruction for several decades.
His earlier work was in a behaviorist tradition, but later he was influenced by the information-processing view of learning and memory. He is well known for his synthesis of research on learning and the identification of internal and external conditions of learning. Gagne stressed that different variables influence the learning of different types of tasks.
He identified five domains of learning outcomes: information intellectual skills cognitive strategies motor skills attitudes Based upon his analysis of research, he believed that the set of variables influencing the learning of tasks in one domain may not influence the learning of tasks in other domains. Gagne placed considerable influence on identifying the appropriate sequence of instructional events that promote successful learning. Podcast Review You can hear Dr. How to use Gagne's model of instructional design in teaching psychomotor skills. Behaviorism. Condicionamiento Operante de Skinner. Condicionamiento operante, llamado también instrumental y hoy en día análisis experimental de la conducta (AEC), se puede definir de la siguiente forma: Es la teoría psicológica del aprendizaje que explica la conducta voluntaria del cuerpo, en su relación con el medio ambiente, basados en un método experimental.
Es decir, que ante un estímulo, se produce una respuesta voluntaria, la cual, puede ser reforzada de manera positiva o negativa provocando que la conducta operante se fortalezca o debilite. Skinner afirmaría que “el condicionamiento operante modifica la conducta en la misma forma en que un escritor moldea un montón de arcilla”, puesto que dentro del condicionamiento operante el aprendizaje es simplemente el cambio de probabilidades de que se emita una respuesta. Skinner afirma que cuando los alumnos están dominados por una atmósfera de depresión, lo que quieren es salir del aprieto y no propiamente aprender o mejorarse. 1. 2.
Overview of Learning Theories. GSI Teaching & Resource Center. Behaviorist teaching methods have proven most successful in areas where there is a “correct” response or easily memorized material.
BackgroundView of KnowledgeView of LearningView of MotivationImplications for Teaching Background Methodological behaviorism began as a reaction against the introspective psychology that dominated the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Introspective psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt maintained that the study of consciousness was the primary object of psychology. Their methodology was primarily introspective, relying heavily on first-person reports of sensations and the constituents of immediate experiences.
The mentalistic problem can be avoided by going directly to the prior physical causes while bypassing intermediate feelings or states of mind. Radical behaviorists such as Skinner also made the ontological claim that facts about mental states are reducible to facts about behavioral dispositions. Teaching and Learning Resources / Learning Theories. Key Concepts Behaviorism is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities.
Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior. Experiments by behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. There are two different types of conditioning, each yielding a different behavioral pattern: 1.Classic conditioning occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus. 2.Behavioral or operant conditioning occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced. Cognitivism focuses on the “brain” . · Schema - An internal knowledge structure. . · Three-Stage Information Processing Model - input first enters a sensory register, then is processed in short-term memory, and then is transferred to long-term memory for storage and retrieval. o Short-Term Memory (STM) - sensory input that is important or interesting is transferred from the sensory register to the STM. Theories of Learning. Learning is one of the most important activities in which humans engage.
It is at the very core of the educational process, although most of what people learn occurs outside of school. For thousands of years, philosophers and psychologists have sought to understand the nature of learning, how it occurs, and how one person can influence the learning of another person through teaching and similar endeavors. Various theories of learning have been suggested, and these theories differ for a variety of reasons. A theory, most simply, is a combination of different factors or variables woven together in an effort to explain whatever the theory is about. In general, theories based on scientific evidence are considered more valid than theories based on opinion or personal experience.