Theoretical Models - Overviews. 3.10.4 - Blockbuster & Strategic Drift. 3.10.1 Lewin's 3-Stage Model of Change. 3.10.1 Kotter's 8 Step Change Model. 3.10 Six change approaches (Kotter) Change is not always experienced as pleasant and it often leads to resistance in organizations.
John P. Kotter and Leonard A. Schlesinger designed the six change approaches to minimize resistance and they set out six approaches to deal with change resistance. Four reasons for change resistance Before any approach methods are used, it is important to understand why people resist change. Parochial self-interest – some employees are more concerned about the consequences of change for themselves. The six change approaches Based on scientific research, Kotter and Schlesinger describe six change approaches to deal with change resistance: Education and Communication – Informing employees beforehand so that they will be involved in the change process will prevent that the information that is provided by the organization comes across as inaccurate. More information Kotter, J. How to cite this article: Van Vliet, V. (2011).
3.10 - Kurt Lewin's Force-Field Analysis Change Model. Johnson 02 Strategic Drift.wmv. 3.9 Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions. Understanding Workplace Values Around the World Learn how to be more sensitive to the needs of people in different cultures.
We know that we are living in a global age. Technology has brought everyone much closer together. This means that people of different cultures find themselves working together and communicating more and more. This is exciting, but it can also be frustrating and fraught with uncertainty. Building connections with people from around the world is just one dimension of cultural diversity. How can we understand cultural differences? Fortunately, psychologist Dr Geert Hofstede asked himself this question in the 1970s. With access to people working for the same organization in over 40 countries of the world, he collected cultural data and analyzed his findings. He scored each country using a scale of roughly 0 to 100 for each dimension. The Five Dimensions of Culture The five dimensions are:
3.9 Charles Handy Model of Organization Culture. What is an organization ?
An organization is a setup where individuals (employees) come together to work for a common goal. It is essential for the employees to work in close coordination, deliver their level bests and achieve the targets within the stipulated time frame for the smooth functioning of the organization. Every organization has certain values and follows some policies and guidelines which differentiate it from others. The principles and beliefs of any organization form its culture. The organization culture decides the way employees interact amongst themselves as well as external parties. Several models have been proposed till date explaining the organization culture, one of them being the Charles Handy model. 3.8 Bowman's Strategy Clock. Making Sense of Eight Competitive Positions © iStockphoto/Zeffss1 In many open markets, most goods and services can be purchased from any number of companies, and customers have a tremendous amount of choice.
It's the job of companies in the market to find their competitive edge and meet customers' needs better than the next company. So, how, given the high degree of competitiveness among companies in a marketplace, does one company gain competitive advantage over the others? And when there are only a finite number of unique products and services out there, how do different organizations sell basically the same things at different prices and with different degrees of success? 3.8 Greiner Curve - Strategy Tools. Surviving the Crises That Come With Growth Growth requires changes at various points. © iStockphoto/PaulGregg Fast-growing companies can often be chaotic places to work.
As workloads increase exponentially, approaches which have worked well in the past start failing. Teams and people get overwhelmed with work. While growth is fun when things are going well, when things go wrong, this chaos can be intensely stressful. The "Greiner Curve" is a useful way of thinking about the crises that organizations experience as they grow. By understanding it, you can quickly understand the root cause of many of the problems you're likely to experience in a fast growing business. 3.8 The Strategy clock. 3.7 Kaplan & Norton's Balanced scorecard. 3.7 Kaplin & Norton - Balanced Scorecard Model. 3.7 Triple bottom line & sustainability: the science of good business. 3.6 The Tannenbaum-Schmidt Leadership Continuum. Balancing Control With Your Team's Need for Freedom Free to act, or closely controlled?
© iStockphoto/catnap72 Leaders use a variety of different approaches. Some are autocratic and prefer to tell their teams exactly what to do. Others use a much more participative style. These differences suggest a continuum of leadership behavior – with leaders being able to choose the style they use.
So, how do you choose the leadership style that's right for you? One popular approach to leadership, the "contingency" approach, argues that your choice should be based on the situation, and not on your personal preferences (here, "contingency" means that your approach is dependent on, or contingent upon, the situation). In 1958, contingency theorists Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt identified a continuum of seven distinct leadership styles, which they published in the Harvard Business Review.
Understanding the Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum Note: Using the Continuum ... for the complete article: 3.2 Blake Mouton Managerial Grid. Balancing Task- and People-Oriented Leadership © iStockphotoanthonyjhall When your boss puts you in charge of organizing the company Christmas party, what do you do first?
Do you develop a time line and start assigning tasks, or do you think about who would prefer to do what, and try to schedule around their needs? When the planning starts to fall behind schedule, what is your first reaction? Do you chase everyone to get back on track, or do you ease off a bit, recognizing that everyone is busy just doing his/her job, let alone the extra tasks you’ve assigned?