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Truth, reality, nature of knowledge

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Harry Frankfurt 'On Bullshit' Fake News. Symbolism allegory of the cave. Overvaluing confidence, we’ve forgotten the power of humility. Detail from Interior with Young Man Reading by Vilhelm Hammershøi, 1898.

Overvaluing confidence, we’ve forgotten the power of humility

Courtesy Wikimedia ‘If I only had a little humility, I’d be perfect,’ the media mogul Ted Turner supposedly said sometime in the 1990s, in a moment of narcissistic exuberance. While Turner has been much humbler since, today’s breed of tech entrepreneurs often display a similar arrogance. Why be humble? After all, Aristotle said: ‘All men by nature desire to know.’ The internet and digital media have created the impression of limitless knowledge at our fingertips. What about all the commenting and conversations that happen online?

Intellectual humility relies on the ability to prefer truth over social status. At the other end of the scale lies intellectual arrogance – the evil twin of overconfidence. From an evolutionary perspective, intellectual arrogance can be seen as a way of achieving dominance through imposing one’s view on others. Barack Obama on fake news: 'We have problems' if we can't tell the difference. President Barack Obama has spoken out about fake news on Facebook and other media platforms, suggesting that it helped undermine the US political process.

Barack Obama on fake news: 'We have problems' if we can't tell the difference

“If we are not serious about facts and what’s true and what’s not, if we can’t discriminate between serious arguments and propaganda, then we have problems,” he said during a press conference in Germany. Since the surprise election of Donald Trump as president-elect, Facebook has battled accusations that it has failed to stem the flow of misinformation on its network and that its business model leads to users becoming divided into polarized political echo chambers. Obama said that we live in an age with “so much active misinformation” that is “packaged very well” and looks the same whether it’s on Facebook or on TV.

Can You Tell Fake News From Real? Study Finds Students Have 'Dismaying' Inability. Stanford researchers assessed students from middle school to college and found they struggled to distinguish ads from articles, neutral sources from biased ones and fake accounts from real ones.

Can You Tell Fake News From Real? Study Finds Students Have 'Dismaying' Inability

Gary Waters/Ikon Images/Getty Images hide caption toggle caption Gary Waters/Ikon Images/Getty Images Stanford researchers assessed students from middle school to college and found they struggled to distinguish ads from articles, neutral sources from biased ones and fake accounts from real ones. If the children are the future, the future might be very ill-informed. That's one implication of a new study from Stanford researchers that evaluated students' ability to assess information sources and described the results as "dismaying," "bleak" and "[a] threat to democracy.

" As content creators and social media platforms grapple with the fake news crisis, the study highlights the other side of the equation: What it looks like when readers are duped. "The photograph had no attribution. What Is Advaita or Nonduality? What is Advaita, or nonduality?

What Is Advaita or Nonduality?

Advaita means nondual or "not two. " This oneness is a fundamental quality of everything. Everything is a part of and made of one nondual conciousness. Often the question arises, "If it is all one thing, why don’t I experience it that way? " This is confusing oneness for the appearance of sameness.