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HyperText Markup Language ( HTML ) is the main markup language for creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser . HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like <html> ), within the web page content. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like <h1>and </h1> , although some tags, known as empty elements , are unpaired, for example <img> . The first tag in a pair is the start tag , the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags ). In between these tags web designers can add text, tags, comments and other types of text-based content. The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages.
Cascading Style Sheets ( CSS ) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language . Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML , but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document, including plain XML , SVG and XUL . CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content (written in HTML or a similar markup language) from document presentation, including elements such as the layout , colors , and fonts . [ 1 ] This separation can improve content accessibility , provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple pages to share formatting, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content (such as by allowing for tableless web design ).
Extensible Markup Language ( XML ) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable . It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification [ 3 ] produced by the W3C , and several other related specifications, [ 4 ] all gratis open standards . [ 5 ] The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability over the Internet . [ 6 ] It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for the languages of the world.
HTML5 is a markup language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web and a core technology of the Internet . It is the fifth revision of the HTML standard (created in 1990 and standardized as HTML 4 as of 1997) [ 2 ] and, as of December 2012 [update] , is a W3C Candidate Recommendation . [ 3 ] Its core aims have been to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices ( web browsers , parsers , etc.). HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4 , but XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML as well. [ 2 ]
Adobe Flash (formerly called " Macromedia Flash") is a multimedia and software platform used for authoring of vector graphics , animation , games and Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) which can be viewed, played and executed in Adobe Flash Player . Flash is frequently used to add streamed video or audio players , advertisement and interactive multimedia content to web pages , although usage of Flash on websites is declining. [ 1 ] Flash manipulates vector and raster graphics to provide animation of text, drawings, and still images. It allows bidirectional streaming of audio and video, and it can capture user input via mouse, keyboard, microphone and camera.