NP-Complete - A Rough Guide. This is a rough guide to the meaning of "NP-Complete".
It is not intended to be an exact definition, but should help you to understand the concept. These are just my personal ideas and are not meant to be "rigorous". Its All About "Time to Solve" If you measure how long a program takes to run when given more and more difficult problems, such as sorting a list of 10 items, 20 items, 30 items etc, you can then plot the times and come up with a function.
NP-Completeness. So far we've seen a lot of good news: such-and-such a problem can be solved quickly (in close to linear time, or at least a time that is some small polynomial function of the input size).
NP-completeness is a form of bad news: evidence that many important problems can't be solved quickly. Why should we care? These NP-complete problems really come up all the time. Knowing they're hard lets you stop beating your head against a wall trying to solve them, and do something better: Apò mēkhanḗs theós. 100th Meme Keys. LogicKo. The Problem of Induction. 1.
The contemporary notion of induction The Oxford English Dictionary (OED Online, accessed October 20, 2012) defines “induction,” in the sense relevant here, as 7. The process of inferring a general law or principle from the observation of particular instances (opposed to deduction n., q.v.) Cryptomnesia. Cryptomnesia occurs when a forgotten memory returns without it being recognized as such by the subject, who believes it is something new and original.
It is a memory bias whereby a person may falsely recall generating a thought, an idea, a song, or a joke, not deliberately engaging in plagiarism but rather experiencing a memory as if it were a new inspiration. Early use The word was first used by the psychiatrist Théodore Flournoy, in reference to the case of medium Hélène Smith (Catherine-Élise Müller) to suggest the high incidence in psychism of "latent memories on the part of the medium that come out, sometimes greatly disfigured by a subliminal work of imagination or reasoning, as so often happens in our ordinary dreams. " Carl Gustav Jung treated the subject in his thesis On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena (1902) and in an article, Cryptomnesia (1905), suggested the phenomenon in Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra.
Causes Value Transcendence. Symbolica. The turn to online research is narrowing the range of modern scholarship, a new study suggests. FOR SCHOLARS - ESPECIALLY scholars who like to wear pajamas - the Internet has been a godsend.
It allows instant communication with colleagues around the globe, and makes tracking down published research a matter of seconds. But perhaps the greatest boon is the sheer quantity of readily accessible knowledge. Millions of journal articles are available online, enabling scholars to find material they never would have encountered at their university libraries. From classic psychology studies to the most esoteric literary theory, it's all just a few clicks away. A recent study, however, suggests that despite this cornucopia, the boom in online research may actually have a "narrowing" effect on scholarship. "Winners are inadvertently picked," says Evans. This study adds weight to concerns, shared by other Internet analysts, that the rise of online research has costs as well as benefits. Rob May: How the Internet is Killing Innovation. Synthesis of Research on Problem Solving. Your problem may be modest; but if it challenges your curiosity and brings into play your inventive faculties, and if you solve it by your own means, you may experience the tension and enjoy the triumph of discovery.
Such experiences at a susceptible age may create a taste for mental work and leave their imprint on mind and character for a lifetime. (26, p. v.) Problem solving has a special importance in the study of mathematics. A primary goal of mathematics teaching and learning is to develop the ability to solve a wide variety of complex mathematics problems. Stanic and Kilpatrick (43) traced the role of problem solving in school mathematics and illustrated a rich history of the topic. To many mathematically literate people, mathematics is synonymous with solving problems -- doing word problems, creating patterns, interpreting figures, developing geometric constructions, proving theorems, etc. Learning to solve problems is the principal reason for studying mathematics. mathematics.
What Kind of Problems Can I Solve? While they may differ widely by discipline and job title, one thing remains constant among careers in mathematics—problem solving.
Some potential problems that someone with mathematical training might encounter are briefly discussed below. Contradictions problem solving triz-journal.com. Ellen Domb, Ph.D.
The TRIZ Institute, 190 N. Mountain Ave., Upland, CA 91786 USA. Voynich Manuscript. S List of Famous Unsolved Codes and Ciphers. 16 « June « 2006. Natural and social systems are complex — that is, not entirely knowable, unpredictable, resistant to cause-and-effect analysis, in a word, mysterious.
For our first three million years on Earth we humans, like every other species on the planet, accepted that mystery. We adapted rather than trying to change our environment. We evolved by learning to accommodate ourselves to our environment. Liberation from Civilization! (this article is an attempt to shorten, personalize and update my signature post A Framework for Personal Action) third chart in my collapse scenario for civilization For many years the thesis of this blog has been: Our civilization is in its final century, and there is nothing we can do to prevent its collapse.
Who is Grok? The Definitive Guide to Grok. The 10 Most Puzzling Ancient Artifacts. The Bible tells us that God created Adam and Eve just a few thousand years ago, by some fundamentalist interpretations. Science informs us that this is mere fiction and that man is a few million years old, and that civilization just tens of thousands of years old. Could it be, however, that conventional science is just as mistaken as the Bible stories? There is a great deal of archeological evidence that the history of life on earth might be far different than what current geological and anthropological texts tell us.
Consider these astonishing finds: Methods and tools for explaining things. Ciphers & Puzzles.