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Dostoyevsky on Why There Are No Bad People. Legendary Russian writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky (November 11, 1821–February 9, 1881) is best known as one of literary history’s titans, but he was also a brilliant entrepreneur and pioneer of self-publishing.

Dostoyevsky on Why There Are No Bad People

15 Great Existential Movies That Are Worth Your Time. Existentialism can be defined by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre’s phrase existence precedes essence.

15 Great Existential Movies That Are Worth Your Time

It means that, for existentialism, a man is not his own end, since human existence only happens when it is designed beyond itself. According to the philosophy of existentialism, a man exists before being, and must give his life sense, since he is only what he makes of himself. Existentialism historically flirts with the arts, literature and cinema, Jean-Paul Sartre, dramatist, existentialist philosopher and writer, certainly believed that. Existentialism also has its history linked to protests and reactions against the status quo in the policies of many countries, against fascism and dictatorship, in favor of freedom and free speech. Kierkegaardphil1reading. Being There: Heidegger on Why Our Presence Matters. The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless.

Being There: Heidegger on Why Our Presence Matters

A cognitive scientist and a German philosopher walk into the woods and come upon a tree in bloom: What does each one see? And why does it matter? Stoicism. Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC.


The Stoics taught that emotions resulted in errors of judgment which were destructive, due to the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom, and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called prohairesis) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life (lex devina), and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how that person behaved.[1] To live a good life, one had to understand the rules of the natural order since they taught that everything was rooted in nature.[2] In the Renaissance there was Neostoicism, that is a syncretic philosophical movement, joining Stoicism and Christianity, influenced by Justus Lipsius. The early 21st century witnesses another reincarnation of Stoicism, namely the modern Stoicism movement. History[edit]


Dante and the Eternal Quest for Nonreligious Divinity: Physicist Margaret Wertheim on Science and God. Kierkegaard course. Hesiod, Theogony, line 404. 453-506 Hesiod's Theogony. Dualism. 1.


The Mind-Body Problem and the History of Dualism 1.1 The Mind-Body Problem The mind-body problem is the problem: what is the relationship between mind and body? Or alternatively: what is the relationship between mental properties and physical properties? Humans have (or seem to have) both physical properties and mental properties. Physical properties are public, in the sense that they are, in principle, equally observable by anyone. The mind-body problem concerns the relationship between these two sets of properties. The ontological question: what are mental states and what are physical states? Different aspects of the mind-body problem arise for different aspects of the mental, such as consciousness, intentionality, the self. The problem of consciousness: what is consciousness? The Euthyphro Dilemma. Divine command theory is widely held to be refuted by an argument known as “the Euthyphro dilemma”.

The Euthyphro Dilemma

This argument is named after Plato’s Euthyphro dialogue, which contains the inspiration for the argument, though not, as is sometimes thought, the argument itself. The Euthyphro dilemma rests on a modernised version of the question asked by Socrates in the Euthyphro: “Are morally good acts willed by God because they are morally good, or are they morally good because they are willed by God?” Each of these two possibilities, the argument runs, leads to consequences that the divine command theorist cannot accept. Whichever way the divine command theorist answers this question, then, it seems that his theory will be refuted.

This argument might be formalised as follows:


Immanuel Kant and The Categorical Imperative for Dummies. Not just any definition of duty would do for Kant.

Immanuel Kant and The Categorical Imperative for Dummies

He said that ideas for duty must cover all persons at all times. So we have an absolutist theory at work, where universal maxims are applied. Universal moral laws that are logical are the foundation of all life. There are no contradictions. Right and wrong is black and white. Peter Carruthers. Microsoft Word - gettierphilreading.doc - gettier.pdf. Episode 73: Why Do Philosophy? (And What Is It?)

Podcast: Play in new window | Download (Duration: 1:14:55 — 68.7MB) Mark, Seth, Wes, and Dylan share what drove them into philosophy and keeps them there.

Episode 73: Why Do Philosophy? (And What Is It?)

How is philosophy different than (or similar to) science? Than religion? Art? Philosophia... Plato's Allegory of the Cave: Analysis and Summary. Sharon Salzberg + Robert Thurman on Embracing Our Enemies and Our Suffering. Plato's view of wisdom. In the Apology, Socrates identifies his activity with "wisdom"—"This man among you, mortals, is wisest who, like Socrates, understands that his wisdom is worthless [my emphasis].

" Fear-and-trembling-johannes-de-silentio. Teaching Children Philosophy. Philosophical Health Test - Error. Formalisation of ancient logics: Dignaga. Kant on Punishment. From Immanuel Kant, Science of Right (1790) Translated by W.

Kant on Punishment

Hastie Judicial or juridical punishment (poena forensis) is to be distinguished from natural punishment (poena naturalis), in which crime as vice punishes itself, and does not as such come within the cognizance of the legislator. juridical punishment can never be administered merely as a means for promoting another good either with regard to the criminal himself or to civil society, but must in all cases be imposed only because the individual on whom it is inflicted has committed a crime. For one man ought never to be dealt with merely as a means subservient to the purpose of another, nor be mixed up with the subjects of real right. Against such treatment his inborn personality has a right to protect him, even although he may be condemned to lose his civil personality. KANTIAN ETHICS.

German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was an opponent of utilitarianism.


Leading 20th century proponent of Kantianism: Professor Elizabeth Anscombe (1920-2001). Basic Summary: Kant, unlike Mill, believed that certain types of actions (including murder, theft, and lying) were absolutely prohibited, even in cases where the action would bring about more happiness than the alternative. For Kantians, there are two questions that we must ask ourselves whenever we decide to act: (i) Can I rationally will that everyone act as I propose to act? If the answer is no, then we must not perform the action. (ii) Does my action respect the goals of human beings rather than merely using them for my own purposes? Kant’s theory is an example of a deontological moral theory–according to these theories, the rightness or wrongness of actions does not depend on their consequences but on whether they fulfill our duty.

Just Do It!: [PL 431] Kant's formulations of the categorical imperative. Kant gives four formulations of the Categorical Imperative : The Formula of the Universal Law of Nature : "Act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a universal law of nature. " The Stone Philosophy Links. The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless. The Stone’s weekly briefing of notable philosophy-related issues and ideas from around the Web. When the mayor of New York, Michael R. Bloomberg, banned the sale of sodas over 16 ounces at many public places last year, many were outraged by what they saw as an infringement on their autonomy. In a review essay at The New York Review of Books, Cass Sunstein points out that these objectors were doing so on grounds laid out by John Stuart Mill in “On Liberty.” Mill, who believed that each individual is in a unique position to know what’s in her best interest, concluded that government may coerce citizens to refrain only from acts that are hazardous to others, and has no warrant for regulating an individual’s behavior.

The Enchiridion by Epictetus. Commentary: A few comments have been posted about The Enchiridion. Download: A 40k text-only version is available for download. The EnchiridionBy Epictetus Written 135 A.C.E. Arist. Some Main Points of Aristotle's Thought. Wittgenstein and Philosophy. Gorgias by Plato. Descartes’ Method of Doubt and the Cogito: Part I. In René Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes creates a whole new method of doubt and skepticism for building a foundation for knowledge. By John Stuart Mill. Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle. Commentary: Quite a few comments have been posted about Nicomachean Ethics.

Download: A text-only version is available for download. Nicomachean EthicsBy Aristotle Written 350 B.C.E Translated by W. Democritus - The Laughing Philosopher.