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Ginkgo ( Ginkgo biloba ; in Chinese and Japanese 銀杏, pinyin romanization: yín xìng , Hepburn romanization : ichō or ginnan ), also spelled gingko [ 3 ] and known as the maidenhair tree , is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The ginkgo is a living fossil , recognisably similar to fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, [ 4 ] the tree is widely cultivated and introduced early in human history, and has various uses as a food and in traditional medicine. [ edit ] Description Ginkgos are large trees, normally reaching a height of 20–35 m (66–115 feet), with some specimens in China being over 50 m (164 feet).
Nootropics ( pron.: / n oʊ . ə ˈ t r ɒ p ɨ k s / noh-ə- TROP -iks ), also referred to as smart drugs , memory enhancers , neuro enhancers , cognitive enhancers , and intelligence enhancers , are drugs , supplements , nutraceuticals , and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such as cognition , memory , intelligence , motivation , attention , and concentration. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by the Romanian Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea , [ 3 ] [ 4 ] derived from the Greek words νους nous , or "mind," and τρέπειν trepein meaning "to bend/turn".
The human consumption of psychoactive drugs , such as marijuana , cocaine , and heroin, is of even more recent historical origin than the human consumption of alcohol or tobacco, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent people use more drugs more frequently than less intelligent individuals. The use of opium dates back to about 5,000 years ago, and the earliest reference to the pharmacological use of cannabis is in a book written in 2737 BC by the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung. Opium and cannabis are the only “natural” (agricultural) psychoactive drugs. Other psychoactive drugs are “chemical” (pharmacological); they require modern chemistry to manufacture, and are therefore of much more recent origin. Morphine was isolated from opium in 1806, cocaine was first manufactured in 1860, and heroin was discovered in 1874.
If Wired.com readers are any indication, performance-enhancing drugs are moving from the sports field into the office. We're not talking steroids; we're talking brain steroids. Surprisingly large numbers of people appear to be using brain-enhancing drugs to work harder, longer and better.
Mind-altering drugs could be as common as coffee within a couple of decades to boost performance at school and at work, to "unlearn" addiction and to erase memories of distressing events such as a terrorist attack, according to a government think-tank. Society may end up realising Aldous Huxley's vision of a Brave New World in which people take a supposedly perfect pleasure-drug, Soma - though the report shies away from discussing whether future governments will be tempted to encourage the use of "happy pills" for social control. The Foresight think-tank points out that psychoactive substances have been part of society for thousands of years. It heralds the development of new recreational drugs, some of which might be less harmful than those already costing society around £13 billion annually, mostly due to crime. "We have not reached a ceiling for recreational drug use," it said.
There seems to be quite a bit of misconception regards what dosage you should be taking of PIRACETAM, in that there appears to be far too many people taking very low dosages of PIRACETAM and then wondering "WHY DOESN'T IT WORK?”. Therefore, I thought I’d post this thread to help increase the number of people benefitting from this wonderful NOOTROPIC. With regards to PIRACETAM dosage you should be taking individual doses of no less than 4.8 GRAMS PER DOSE; and a TOTAL DAILY DOSAGE of 9.6 GRAMS (or more)
Greetings everyone. I've been experimenting with various nootropics since november of last year, beginning with simple choline bitartrate and inositol for very mild social anxiety, before I was even aware of what nootropics were, or that they even existed. As everyone here should, I do a lot of research on anything I put into my body before doing so, and thus stumbled upon this site in my research of choline, discovering its nootropic qualities. I quickly became enamored with nootropics, particularly the racetams, and have spend many hours every day since then in my down time researching, assimilating and digesting information regarding them.
I started the year on a high, literally. Dexamethasone, Theolin SR and Seretide had put me thru a whole sine curve of emotions and various states of mental acuity (or lack thereof). Having witnessed (nay, experienced ) the very real mental effects of drugs, and with the upcoming movie Limitless (links below), i became very much seduced and intrigued by the idea of drug enhanced mental performance.