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Finance assignment 2

The Federal Reserve: Duties. The Fed's mandate is "to promote sustainable growth, high levels of employment, stability of prices to help preserve the purchasing power of the dollar and moderate long-term interest rates. " In other words, the Fed's job is to foster a sound banking system and a healthy economy. To accomplish its mission, the Fed serves as the banker's bank, the government's bank, the regulator of financial institutions and as the nation's money manager.

Banker's Bank Each of the 12 Fed Banks provide services to financial institutions in the same way that regular banks provide services to individuals. This helps to assure the safety and efficiency of the nation's payments system. The Government's Bank The biggest customer of the Federal Reserve is one of the largest spenders in the world - the U.S. government. The Fed also issues all coin and paper currency.

Regulator and Supervisor The Federal Reserve Board has regulatory and supervisory responsibilities over banks. The Federal Reserve: What Is The Fed? The Federal Reserve was created by the U.S. Congress in 1913. Before that, the U.S. lacked any formal organization for studying and implementing monetary policy. Consequently markets were often unstable and the public had very little faith in the banking system. The Fed is an independent entity, but is subject to oversight from Congress. Basically, this means that decisions do not have to be ratified by the President or anyone else in the government, but Congress periodically reviews the Fed's activities. The Fed is headed by a government agency in Washington known as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve.

There are 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks located in major cities around the country that operate under the supervision of the Board of Governors. The system also includes the Federal Open Market Committee, better known as the FOMC. Finally, all national banks and some state-chartered banks are part of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve: Duties. What Do Banks Look at for Loans? Bank financing can be a key to your small business’ success. Proper use of small business loans can consolidate debt, provide capital and allow for expansion. To qualify for a loan, banks look for the “Five Cs” of credit -- capacity, collateral, capital, character and conditions.

If your business is lacking in any of these areas, obtaining a small business loan may prove difficult. Capacity The lender wants to ensure that you can repay the loan. Your ability to do so is known as capacity. Collateral Even the strongest business can fall victim to unforeseen circumstances inhibiting its ability to repay a loan. Related Reading: Why Do Banks Loan Money to Companies? Capital In reviewing your financials, the lender evaluates your company’s capital.

Character While not as black and white as credit, collateral and capacity, character is another important trait when evaluating a company for a loan. Conditions The final piece of criteria banks look for in loans is out of the borrower’s control. What Do Banks Look at for Loans? Savings Accounts - Open a Bank of America Savings Account. Checking Accounts - Open a Checking Account from Bank of America.

What is a Certificate of Deposit (CD)? - Personal Finance - WSJ.com. Sold by banks, certificates of deposit (better known as CDs) are low-risk –- and relatively low-return — investments suitable for cash you don’t need for months or years. If you leave the money alone during the investment period (known as the “term” or “duration”), the bank will pay you an interest rate slightly higher than what you would have earned in a money market or checking account. All gains from CDs are taxable as income, unless they are in a tax-deferred (IRA) or tax-free (Roth IRA) account.

CDs are among the safest investment a persona can make. The interest rate is determined ahead of time, and you’re guaranteed to get back what you put in, plus interest once the CD matures. What’s more, if the bank goes belly up, your deposit is probably insured by the FDIC for up to $250,000. Here are the most common types of CDs: • Traditional CD: You receive a fixed interest rate over a specific period of time.

. • Brokered CD — This term refers to any CD offered by a brokerage. CD Accounts - Open a CD Account from Bank of America. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Investing in the Stock Market With Personal Finances | Finance. Risking personal money for a potential gain is a big step for some individuals. Investors willing to take the risk often use their personal finances to invest in the stock market. The stock market is an exchange place where investors meet to buy and sell shares. Historically, the stock market has experienced positive returns over the long run, but there are advantages and disadvantages of investing in the stock market.

Return on Investment Historical returns related to stock market investing outperform many other types of investments. According to Vanguard, the historical average return for stocks from 1926 to 2011 is 9.9 percent. In contrast, the average return for bonds during the same period is 5.6 percent. Ownership Investing in the stock market is one of the easiest ways to become a minority owner within a company. Subject to Higher Risk When investing in the stock market, the higher the return the greater the risk of losing money. Time Consuming About the Author. Pros and Cons of Banks: Everything You Need to Know. Since the days of keeping valuables locked up in treasure boxes in the form of gold, silver and jewels, people throughout the world have relied on banks to keep their financial assets secure. However, some people do not trust that banks have their best interests at heart. To help depositors find a secure location for their hard earned money, here is a breakdown of the advantages and disadvantages of banks.

Bank Advantages There are many advantages to using a bank. Whether you’re using one for your personal, small business or corporate needs, your financial well-being depends on properly managing your funds. Banks can help you do this by providing savings and checking accounts that yield interest through bank rates. Banks also have the following advantages: 1. Whether it’s a savings, checking, trust fund, certificate of deposit or Roth IRA account, it’s insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). 2. 3. 4.

Disadvantages of Banks Photo credit: Paul Bailey. The role of brokers and financial advisers - Mortgages - Money - The Independent. Greenbank, Edinburgh This five-bedroom home is arranged over three floors of a converted Victorian hospital, offering spectacular views of the Pentland Hills - only three miles from the city centre. Crossgar, Co. Down This four-bedroom detached home comes with grounds that span to approximately 2.5 acres, as well as two large patio areas and a double garage. Stroud, Gloucestershire This four-bedroom cottage is a Grade II-listed town house, well-located for the thriving market town of Nailsworth. Gargrave, Skipton St. Advantages and Disadvantages of Investing in Mutual Funds | Money Instructor.

The Advantages: Diversification: A single mutual fund can hold securities from hundreds or even thousands of issuers. This diversification considerably reduces the risk of a serious monetary loss due to problems in a particular company or industry. Affordability: You can begin buying units or shares with a relatively small amount of money (e.g., $500 for the initial purchase).

Some mutual funds also permits you to buy more units on a regular basis with even smaller installments (e.g., $50 per month). Professional Management: Many investors do not have the time or expertise to manage their personal investments every day, to efficiently reinvest interest or dividend income, or to investigate the thousands of securities available in the financial markets. Liquidity: Units or shares in a mutual fund can be bought and sold any business day (that the market is open), thus, providing investors with easy access to their money. The Disadvantages: Mutual Funds As Financial Intermediaries. Mutual Funds As Financial Intermediaries. Banks / Financial Intermediaries. The Banks/Financial Intermediaries division is responsible for the licensing and supervision of banks and financial intermediaries. Financial intermediaries include securities dealers, mortgage bond institutions, asset managers and distributors of collective investment schemes, insurance intermediaries and directly subordinated financial intermediaries (DSFIs) under the Anti-Money Laundering Act.

Banks, securities dealers and asset managers of collective investment schemes which form an economic unit with other companies in the financial sector are also monitored on a consolidated basis as part of the supervision of financial services groups. The two major banking groups UBS and Credit Suisse are subject to a separate, customised supervisory regime that is handled by the Large Banking Groups division. The supervisory process for banks and financial intermediaries starts with the licensing procedure. Once a licence has been granted, licence holders are subject to ongoing supervision. Financial Intermediation. Financial intermediaries are firms that pool the savings or investments of many people and lend or invest the money to other companies or people to earn a return. Financial intermediaries include banks, investment companies, insurance companies, and pension funds. Banks lend the money of depositors to businesses and others, and pay depositors interest or provide them with valuable services, such as checking and electronic funds transfers.

Investment companies allow small retail investors to pool their money together to reduce the diversifiable risks of investments and to profit from the expertise of professional money managers. Insurance companies pool the premiums of the insured to pay for the losses of a few of the insured, thereby preventing a financial catastrophe for the sufferers. The assets and liabilities of financial intermediaries are primarily financial instruments. Sources of funding for businesses can be categorized as either internal or external financing. Functions and Examples of Financial Intermediaries. Definition of financial intermediaries A financial intermediary is a financial institution such as bank, building society, insurance company, investment bank or pension fund. A financial intermediary offers a service to help an individual/ firm to save or borrow money.

A financial intermediary helps to facilitate the different needs of lenders and borrowers. For example, if you need to borrow £1,000 – you could try to find an individual who wants to lend £1,000. But, this would be very time consuming and you would find it difficult to know how reliable the lender was. Therefore, rather than look for individuals to borrow a sum, it is more efficient to go to a bank (a financial intermediary) to borrow money. Examples of Financial Intermediaries 1. If you have a risky investment. 2. A financial adviser doesn’t directly lend or borrow for you. 3. Credit unions are informal types of banks which provide facilities for lending and depositing within a particular community. 4.

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