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For a general discussion of skepticism, see Skepticism .
In theology and philosophy , probabilism (from Latin probare , to test, approve) refers to an ancient Greek doctrine of academic skepticism . [ 1 ] It holds that in the absence of certainty, probably probability is the best criterion. It can also refer to a 17th century religious thesis about ethics, or a modern physical-philosophical thesis. [ edit ] Theology
Truth is most often used to mean in accord with fact or reality , [ 1 ] or fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal. [ 1 ] The opposite of truth is falsehood , which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy and religion .
The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world. The theory is opposed to the coherence theory of truth which holds that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined by its relations to other statements rather than its relation to the world. [ citation needed ]
John Locke , a leading philosopher of British empiricism Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience . [ 1 ] One of several views of epistemology , the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism , idealism , and historicism , empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence , especially sensory experience, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions ; [ 2 ] empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences. [ 3 ]
In formal logic , the open world assumption is the assumption that the truth-value of a statement is independent of whether or not it is known by any single observer or agent to be true. It is the opposite of the closed world assumption , which holds that any statement that is not known to be true is false.
Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic or probabilistic logic ; it deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than fixed and exact. Compared to traditional binary sets (where variables may take on true or false values ) fuzzy logic variables may have a truth value that ranges in degree between 0 and 1. Fuzzy logic has been extended to handle the concept of partial truth, where the truth value may range between completely true and completely false. [ 1 ] Furthermore, when linguistic variables are used, these degrees may be managed by specific functions.
Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that establish inherent limitations of all but the most trivial axiomatic systems capable of doing arithmetic . The theorems, proven by Kurt Gödel in 1931, are important both in mathematical logic and in the philosophy of mathematics .
In philosophy and logic , the liar paradox or liar's paradox ( pseudomenon in Ancient Greek ) is the statement "this sentence is false." Trying to assign to this statement a classical binary truth value leads to a contradiction (see paradox ).
In logic , a three-valued logic (also trivalent , ternary , or trinary logic , sometimes abbreviated 3VL ) is any of several many-valued logic systems in which there are three truth values indicating true , false and some indeterminate third value. This is contrasted with the more commonly known bivalent logics (such as classical sentential or boolean logic ) which provide only for true and false . Conceptual form and basic ideas were initially created by Łukasiewicz , Lewis and Sulski .
In logic and philosophy , an argument is an attempt to persuade someone of something, by giving reasons for accepting a particular conclusion as evident. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The general structure of an argument in a natural language is that of premises (typically in the form of propositions , statements or sentences ) in support of a claim: the conclusion. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] The structure of some arguments can also be set out in a formal language , and formally-defined "arguments" can be made independently of natural language arguments, as in math, logic and computer science.
In the philosophy of mathematics , constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or "construct") a mathematical object to prove that it exists.
A counterfactual conditional , subjunctive conditional, or remote conditional, abbreviated CF , is a conditional (or "if-then") statement indicating what would be the case if its antecedent were true (although it is not true). This is to be contrasted with an indicative conditional , which indicates what is (in fact) the case if its antecedent is (in fact) true (which it may or may not be).
Falsifiability or refutability is the trait of a statement , hypothesis , or theory whereby it can be shown false by way of some conceivable observation practically possible to achieve.
Occam's razor (also written as Ockham's razor , Latin lex parsimoniae ) is a principle of parsimony, economy, or succinctness used in logic and problem-solving. It states that among competing hypotheses, the one that makes the fewest assumptions should be selected. [ edit ] Overview