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Bike Lanes May Be The Most Cost-Effective Way To Improve Public Health. Amazing things happen to a city once people are encouraged to switch to bike commuting: the air quality improves throughout the city, which benefits everyone, not just cyclists.

Bike Lanes May Be The Most Cost-Effective Way To Improve Public Health

Quieter roads are more pleasant roads to be around, and they’re less congested for those who still insist on driving. And of course riding a bike every day brings all kinds of health benefits to the cyclists themselves. A new study from researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health shows just how big those benefits can be. Per dollar spent, constructing bike lanes is a cheap way to improve public health. For instance back in 2005, New York City spent $10 million on curbing traffic as part of the federally-funded Safe Routes to School program. NHS to target obesity in new nationwide programme. A new programme aimed at getting Britons back in shape through a better diet and more exercise is to be rolled out across the country.

Example of "Lifestyle drift" - “the tendency for policy to start off recognizing the need for action on upstream social determinants of health inequalities only to drift downstream to focus largely on individual lifestyle factors”. committees start with discussions about town planning, promoting active travel and reformulating foods, but end up setting targets around completed weight management interventions instead. – mcquillan_ruth

The latest figures, in a report from the European commission, show that the obesity rate in the UK has increased over the past decade, making it the second highest in the EU.

NHS to target obesity in new nationwide programme

But the chief executive of NHS England, Simon Stevens, said the country can prove obesity is not inevitable “if we get our act together”. As part of the programme, thousands of people at risk of diabetes will be offered support to improve their health. From next month, NHS England will work with Diabetes UK, Public Health England and politicians to develop the first national programme to prevent the growth of the disease. Use buggy covers to combat air pollution danger, parents warned. Parents should use covers on their prams during the school run to protect their infants from air pollution, experts have warned.

Use buggy covers to combat air pollution danger, parents warned

Scientists tested the pollution levels inside prams to assess the exposure of infants taken on the school run with older siblings. The researchers found that the fine particle pollution from vehicle exhausts, which is particularly harmful, was higher during the morning journey. “Young children are far more susceptible to pollution than adults, due to their immature and developing systems and lower body weight,” said Dr Prashant Kumar, at the University of Surrey and who led the new research.

“These findings provide an insight for families who walk to and from nursery and primary schools with young children. Qualitative study on effectiveness of "Responsibility deal"

The UK coalition government's 2010 "Responsibility Deal" is an example of self-regulation by major commercial interests. No evidence of effectiveness for promoting healthy choices around food and alcohol – mcquillan_ruth

Rose (2001) Sick individuals and sick populations. Skip to Main Content Sign In Register Advanced Search Online ISSN 1464-3685 Print ISSN 0300-5771 Copyright © 2017 International Epidemiological Association Connect Resources Explore Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

Rose (2001) Sick individuals and sick populations

The death of diesel: has the one-time wonder fuel become the new asbestos? BMJ editorial on sugar and salt. Lancet review on alcohol harm prevention strategies. Fentanyl overdose deaths. THE roadside billboards in some American towns do not advertise fast-food chains or home insurance.

Fentanyl overdose deaths

Instead, they tell people what to do in case of a drug overdose. Deaths in America from opioids, pain-relieving drugs that include both prescription painkillers such as OxyContin and illegal ones such as heroin, have almost quadrupled over the past two decades. In some states the share of babies who are born with withdrawal symptoms has increased by 300% since 1999; at least 8,000 were born suffering from them in 2013. Each day 91 Americans die from an opioid overdose. Sugar tax must apply to sweets as well as drinks, say campaigners. The sugar tax should be extended to cover sweets, not just soft drinks, according to public health campaigners.

Sugar tax must apply to sweets as well as drinks, say campaigners

The charity Action on Sugar said it wanted ministers to get tough on childhood obesity by forcing confectionery manufacturers to reduce the sugar in their products. Obesity, junk food, "bliss point" and aggressive marketing. People in the UK are hooked on takeaways and microwave meals, or so we are constantly told by TV chefs and the media.

Obesity, junk food, "bliss point" and aggressive marketing

This apparent addiction to fast food is leading to an obesity epidemic. But what exactly is “junk food”? And why is the consumer always at fault for failing to resist these hyper-palatable foods? According to a recent YouGov survey, we eat too much “junk food” and new research by the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) says we can no longer say we do so because it’s cheaper. Subsdising healthy food as an obesity prevention strategy. The heavy costs of an increasingly obese population are well known.

Subsdising healthy food as an obesity prevention strategy

Physical problems associated with a Body Mass Index over 30 include type 2 diabetes, strokes, and certain types of cancer. Psychological issues include depression and low self esteem. But there is also a significant financial price to pay. Public Health England’s new guideline for the food industry is unlikely to curb obesity. Public Health England (PHE) has published new guidelines for the food industry, setting out approaches manufacturers can take to reduce the amount of sugar children consume.

Public Health England’s new guideline for the food industry is unlikely to curb obesity

Polypills - series of lancet articles. Nestlé to remove 10% of sugar from all snacks in UK and Ireland by 2018. Nestlé, one of the world’s biggest chocolate manufacturers, will take 10% of the sugar out of its confectionery in the UK and Ireland by 2018.

Nestlé to remove 10% of sugar from all snacks in UK and Ireland by 2018

The corporation says the cut is from the levels existing in its sugary products in 2015 and will amount to about 7,500 tonnes. It makes several well-known brands, including Aero, Dairy Box, Drifter, KitKat, Lion, Milkybar, Munchies, Polo, Quality Street, Rolo, Smarties, Toffee Crisp, Walnut Whip and Yorkie. The Real Cost of Food - can taxes and subsidies imrove public health? JAMA article. What if everyone over 55 was offered a pill to prevent heart attacks and strokes? Polypill blog by Richard Smith. Reading time: 6 mins Richard Smith Richard Smith is chair of Patients Know Best and icddr,b (formerly International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh) and former editor of the BMJ. Sit Less, Get Active - The University of Edinburgh. Article: How three countries in the Americas are fortifying dietary salt reduction: A north and south perspective.

Article: SHAPING THE CONTEXT OF HEALTH: A Review of Environmental and Policy Approaches in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Leaflet: The IOM Model: A Tool for Prevention Planning and Implementation. Book chapter: Prevention of Obesity - Weighing the Options - NCBI Bookshelf. Article: Two Pathways to Prevention.