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King David in robes of a Byzantine emperor. Miniature from the Paris Psalter . David ( Hebrew : דָּוִד, דָּוִיד , Modern David Tiberian Dāwîḏ ; ISO 259-3 Dawid ; Arabic : داود Dāwūd ; Strong's : Daveed ) according to the Hebrew Bible , was the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel , and according to the New Testament Gospels of Matthew and Luke , an ancestor of Jesus .
Baruch Halpern is the Covenant Foundation Professor of Jewish Studies at the University of Georgia . He has been a leader of the archaeological digs at Tel Megiddo since 1992. [ 1 ] As an undergraduate at Harvard in 1972, he wrote a political analysis of the Bible , which subsequently influenced research into its authorship. [ 2 ] Major publications include:
Thomas L. Thompson (born January 7, 1939 in Detroit Michigan ) is a biblical scholar and theologian associated with the movement known as the Copenhagen School . He was professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen from 1993–2009, lives in Denmark and is now a Danish citizen. [ edit ] Biography Thompson was raised as a Catholic and obtained a B.A. from Duquesne University , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania , USA , in 1962.
Donald B. Redford (born September 2, 1934) is a Canadian Egyptologist and archaeologist , currently Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies at Pennsylvania State University . He is married to Susan Redford, who is also an Egyptologist currently teaching classes at the university. Professor Redford has directed a number of important excavations in Egypt , notably at Karnak and Mendes . Along with his wife Susan Redford, he is the director of the Akhenaten Temple Project. [ edit ] Biography
Martin Noth (August 3, 1902 – May 30, 1968) was a German scholar of the Hebrew Bible who specialized in the pre-Exilic history of the Hebrews. With Gerhard von Rad he pioneered the traditional-historical approach to biblical studies, emphasising the role of oral traditions in the formation of the biblical texts. [ edit ] Life Noth was born in Dresden , Kingdom of Saxony . He studied at the universities of Erlangen , Rostock , [ 1 ] and Leipzig and taught at Greifswald and Königsberg .
The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts [ 1 ] is a 2001 book about the archaeology of Israel and its relationship to the origins of the Hebrew Bible . The authors are Israel Finkelstein , Professor of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University , and Neil Asher Silberman , a contributing editor to Archaeology Magazine . [ edit ] Methodology
Historical criticism , also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism , is a branch of literary criticism that investigates the origins of ancient text in order to understand "the world behind the text". [ 1 ] The primary goal of historical criticism is to ascertain the text's primitive or original meaning in its original historical context and its literal sense or sensus literalis historicus . The secondary goal seeks to establish a reconstruction of the historical situation of the author and recipients of the text. This may be accomplished by reconstructing the true nature of the events which the text describes. An ancient text may also serve as a document, record or source for reconstructing the ancient past which may also serve as a chief interest to the historical critic.
Diagram of the Documentary Hypothesis. The documentary hypothesis , ( DH ) (sometimes called the Wellhausen hypothesis ), proposes that the Torah was derived from originally independent, parallel and complete narratives, which were subsequently combined into the current form by a series of redactors (editors). The number of these is usually set at four, but this is not an essential part of the hypothesis.
The Deuteronomist , or simply D , is one of the sources underlying the Hebrew bible (and the Christian Old Testament ), together with the Priestly source , the Yahwist and the Elohist . It is found in the book of Deuteronomy , in the books of Joshua , Judges , Samuel , and Kings (the Deuteronomistic history, or DtrH) and also in the book of Jeremiah . (The adjectives Deuteronomic and Deuteronomistic are essentially interchangeable: if they are distinguished at all, then the first refers to Deuteronomy and the second to the history). [ 1 ]
The Jahwist , also referred to as the Jehovist , Yahwist , or simply as J , is one of the four sources of the Torah , together with the Elohist , Deuteronomist and the Priestly source . [ 1 ] It gets its name from the fact that it characteristically uses the term Yahweh (more accurately, YHWH ) for God in the book of Genesis. [ 2 ] In most English Bibles it is replaced with "the L ORD ", [ 3 ] " or sometimes "G OD ", but in fact it is simply God's name. [ 4 ] In the first half of the 20th century it was believed that the Yahwist could be dated to c. 950 BCE, [ 5 ] but later study has demonstrated that portions of J cannot be earlier than the 7th century. [ 6 ] Current theories place it in the exilic and/or post-exilic period (6th–5th centuries BCE), [ 7 ] but the date and even the existence of J are currently the subject of vigorous discussion. [ 8 ]
The Elohist (E) is one of four sources of the Torah identified by biblical scholars. Its name comes from Elohim , the term it uses for God. It is characterised by, among other things, an abstract view of God, using " Horeb " instead of " Sinai " for the mountain where Moses received the laws of Israel and the use of the phrase "fear of God". [ 1 ] It habitually locates ancestral stories in the north , especially Ephraim , and the documentary hypothesis holds that it must have been composed in that region, possibly in the second half of the 9th century BCE. [ 2 ] Recent reconstructions leave out the Elohist altogether, proposing a Deuteronomist - Jahwist - Priestly source sequence written from the reign of Josiah into post- exilic times. [ 3 ] [ edit ] Background
The Priestly Source (P) is one of the sources of the Torah /Pentateuch in the Bible , together with the Yahwist , Elohist and the Deuteronomist . Primarily a product of the post-Exilic period when Judah was a province of the Persian empire (the 5th century BCE), [ 1 ] P was written to show that even when all seemed lost, God remained present with Israel. [ 2 ] It has been compared to a necklace strung with pearls: "the thread of the necklace is made up of genealogies, itineraries and a terse story line, with a strong interest in chronology ... [t]he pearls are the major stories". [ 3 ] Its characteristics include a set of claims that are contradicted by non-Priestly passages and therefore uniquely characteristic: no sacrifice before the institution is ordained by God at Sinai, the exalted status of Aaron and the priesthood, and the use of the divine title El Shaddai before God reveals his name to Moses, to name a few. [ 4 ] [ edit ] Background