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The Idea in Brief Many managers underestimate the transformational challenges of their roles—or they become complacent and stop growing and improving. At best they learn to get by; at worst they become terrible bosses. Sometimes even the best of them suffer doubts and fears despite years of management experience. Three imperatives can guide managers on their journey to becoming great bosses: (1) Manage yourself. Productive influence comes from people’s trust in your competence and character. (2) Manage your network.
First published Wed Apr 1, 2009 The concept of modularity has loomed large in philosophy and psychology since the early 1980s, following the publication of Fodor's ground-breaking book The Modularity of Mind (1983). In the twenty-five years since the term ‘module’ and its cognates first entered the lexicon of cognitive science, the conceptual and theoretical landscape in this area has changed dramatically. Especially noteworthy in this regard has been the development of evolutionary psychology, whose proponents argue that the architecture of the mind is more pervasively modular than the Fodorian perspective allows. Where Fodor (1983, 2000) draws the line of modularity at the low-level systems underlying perception and language, post-Fodorian theorists such as Carruthers (2006) contend that the mind is modular through and through, that is, up to and including the high-level systems responsible for thought.
Without Miracles 5 Brain Evolution and Development: The Selection of Neurons and Synapses Instruction versus Selection The 10,000 or so synapses per cortical neuron are not established immediately. On the contrary, they proliferate in successive waves from birth to puberty in man. . . .
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The impact factor (IF) of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in the journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield , the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information . Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in the Journal Citation Reports . [ edit ] Calculation In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years. [ 1 ] For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008.
This essay was originally published in the Current Contents print editions June 20, 1994, when Thomson Reuters was known as The Institute for Scientific Information® (ISI®). See also: "The agony and the ecstasy: the history and meaning of the Journal Impact Factor" Librarians and information scientists have been evaluating journals for at least 75 years. Gross and Gross conducted a classic study of citation patterns in the '20s. 1 Others, including Estelle Brodman with her studies in the '40s of physiology journals and subsequent reviews of the process, followed this lead. 2 However, the advent of the Thomson Reuters citation indexes made it possible to do computer-compiled statistical reports not only on the output of journals but also in terms of citation frequency. And in the '60s we invented the journal "impact factor."