Abgelenkt. MALCOLM X vs. MARTIN LUTHER KING. Everything has its opposite. Black has white. Night has day. Hard, soft. Hot, cold. Malcolm’s earliest memory is that of waking in the middle of the night in a burning house. Martin Luther King, Sr. was a prominent minister in Atlanta, Georgia. Malcolm’s father, a farmer in rural Michigan, was a follower of Marcus Garvey, founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Martin decided to follow in his father’s footsteps and become a minister. Though Malcolm’s mother tried desperately to keep the family together, she found that she could not. On December 3, 1955 Mrs. While in jail, Malcolm became a follower of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam in America, in many ways the successor to Marcus Garvey’s UNIA.
Thus Malcolm and King each became a focus of one of the opposing wings of the movement for equality that swept Black America, and the country, in the middle of the last century. Malcolm X - Black History. Born Malcolm Little in 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska, Malcolm was the son of a Baptist preacher who was a follower of Marcus Garvey. After the Ku Klux Klan made threats against his father, the family moved to Lansing, Michigan. There, in the face of similar threats, he continued to urge blacks to take control of their lives. Malcolm’s father was slain by the Klan-like Black Legionaries. Although he was found with his head crushed on one side and almost severed from his body, it was claimed he had committed suicide, and the family was denied his death benefit. After the eighth grade, Malcolm dropped out of school, headed for a life of crime.
After six years Malcolm was released from prison. Malcolm’s assertion that President John F. Influenced largely by Malcolm, in the summer of 1966 members of SNCC called for black power for black people. The Reader’s Companion to American History. Independent Lens . FEBRUARY ONE . Civil Rights and Non-Violence. At the heart of the U.S. Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s was the use of nonviolent direct-action protest, including the student sit-ins portrayed in FEBRUARY ONE. Inspired by the example of Jesus, and the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi during India’s struggle for independence, black church and community leaders in the United States began advocating the use of non-violence in their own struggle.
Beyond spontaneous and planned student sit-ins, several organizations were formed to fight for civil rights using Gandhi’s model of nonviolent dissent and action. Three of the most influential groups—the Congress of Racial Equality, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee—were pivotal in bringing about social change in America. The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in Chicago in 1942 to promote better race relations and end racial discrimination in the United States. Interview With Rosa Parks | How Rosa Parks Fought for Civil Rights. Interview with Rosa Parks Below are Rosa Parks's answers to questions from students. Life Before Civil Rights Rosa Parks' Role in Civil Rights Civil Rights Today Other Questions Life Before Civil Rights How do you feel about the way black Americans used to be treated?
I always felt badly because our people were not treated fairly. We should have been free and given the same opportunities others had. How did it feel not to have civil rights? Of course it felt like we should all be free people and we should have the same rights as other people. When you were little, did you understand that black people weren't treated fairly? When I was a young child I couldn't understand why black people weren't treated fairly. How do you feel about the people who treated you so unfairly? I don't think well of people who are prejudiced against people because of race. Were you allowed to learn to read when you were little? Well, yes. Back to top Rosa Parks' Role in Civil Rights I accept the title quite well.
Black Panther Party. This text is available as an audio book. In October of 1966, in Oakland California, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. The Panthers practiced militant self-defense of minority communities against the U.S. government, and fought to establish revolutionary socialism through mass organizing and community based programs. The party was one of the first organizations in U.S. history to militantly struggle for ethnic minority and working class emancipation — a party whose agenda was the revolutionary establishment of real economic, social, and political equality across gender and color lines.
The Ten-Point ProgramRules of the Black Panther Party Black Panther Theory: The practices of the late Malcolm X were deeply rooted in the theoretical foundations of the Black Panther Party. Black Panther History: On April 25th, 1967, the first issue of The Black Panther, the party's official news organ, goes into distribution. The Winston Salem (N.C.) U.S. Links: Peaceful protest is much more effective than violence for toppling dictators. Political scientist Erica Chenoweth used to believe, as many do, that violence is the most reliable way to get rid of a dictator. History is filled, after all, with coups, rebellions and civil wars. She didn't take public protests or other forms of peaceful resistance very seriously; how could they possible upend a powerful, authoritarian regime? Then, as Chenoweth recounts in a Ted Talk posted online Monday, she put together some data and was surprised by what she found. "I collected data on all major nonviolent and violent campaigns for the overthrow of a government or a territorial liberation since 1900," she says -- hundreds of cases.
"The data blew me away. " Here's her chart, which pretty clearly suggests that nonviolent movements are much likelier to work: (Erica Chenoweth/YouTube) And that trend is actually "increasing over time," Chenoweth adds. "Researchers used to say that no government could survive if just 5 percent of the population rose up against it," Chenoweth says.