John McCarthy (1927 - 2011)

Facebook Twitter

The business of AI. This week the man often called the father of artificial intelligence died.

The business of AI

John McCarthy is credited with coining the term artificial intelligence in a 1955 research proposal where he argued: “Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it”. McCarthy was a visionary, who in 1961 suggested that "computing may someday be organised as a public utility, just as the telephone system is a public utility".

But it was artificial intelligence, not cloud computing, that he devoted his work to, inventing the programming language Lisp in the fifties, which enabled the development of voice recognition technology, now seen on a grand scale in Siri, the personal assistant application on the iPhone 4S. Despite all of McCarthy’s vision and progress, real-life applications of artificial intelligence remain clunky. John McCarthy. John McCarthy (1927 - 2011), Believer in Humanity. There are two important concepts first articulated by Prof.

John McCarthy (1927 - 2011), Believer in Humanity

John McCarthy of Stanford University, neither of which actually imply that computers will ever evolve to become intelligent, rational creatures. One is that electronic machines can learn functions and processes. Throughout the 56 years since this concept was introduced, it has been declared an undeniable fact numerous times, only for someone to subsequently reposition the qualifications bar for "learning. " The other is that artificial intelligence (AI) is implied by any process which, when done well and correctly, appears to have required human intelligence. In other words, like legislative gridlock, you don't have to see it yourself to know it exists.

The brilliance of that notion is that it implies the value of faith. "Intelligence" itself is a term whose definitions vary wildly, and which may apply to me only loosely. John McCarthy, 1927-2011. (Remembering (John (McCarthy (1927 - 2011)))) October has been a tough month for the computing community.

(Remembering (John (McCarthy (1927 - 2011))))

On the heels of the deaths of both Steve Jobs and Dennis Ritchie, Stanford has confirmed that John McCarthy, creator of the programming language Lisp and a founder of AI, passed away on Sunday. He was 84. McCarthy’s influence began at Dartmouth, where he coined the term “artificial intelligence” while planning the first conference in the field, held in 1956. Though he later wished he had named the field differently—“computational intelligence” would have been more apt, if less alluring—McCarthy went on to make significant contributions to the field, creating Lisp, the programming language of choice for many AI applications. Lisp has experienced remarkable longevity: It is the second-oldest programming language still in use (after Fortran), and has sprouted off a number of new dialects, including Arc, Nu, and Clojure. John McCarthy, in Memoriam. Lisp Cycles. John McCarthy - Father of AI and Lisp - Dies at 84.

Father of artificial intelligence dies at 84. John McCarthy, Pioneer in Artificial Intelligence, Dies at 84. John McCarthy. McCarthy received many accolades and honors, such as the Turing Award for his contributions to the topic of AI, the United States National Medal of Science, and the Kyoto Prize.

John McCarthy

John McCarthy was born in Boston, Massachusetts on September 4, 1927 to an Irish immigrant father and a Lithuanian Jewish immigrant mother,[2] John Patrick and Ida Glatt McCarthy. The family was obliged to relocate frequently during the Great Depression, until McCarthy's father found work as an organizer for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in Los Angeles, California. McCarthy was suspended from Caltech for failure to attend physical education courses; he then served in the US Army and was readmitted, receiving a B.S. in Mathematics in 1948.[5] It was at Caltech that he attended a lecture by John von Neumann that inspired his future endeavors.

McCarthy initially continued his studies at Caltech. He received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from Princeton University in 1951 as a student of Solomon Lefschetz. Philip J. Lisp (programming language) The interchangeability of code and data also gives Lisp its instantly recognizable syntax.

Lisp (programming language)

All program code is written as s-expressions, or parenthesized lists. A function call or syntactic form is written as a list with the function or operator's name first, and the arguments following; for instance, a function f that takes three arguments might be called using (f arg1 arg2 arg3). John McCarthy and Steve Russell. Garbage collection (computer science) Garbage collection is often portrayed as the opposite of manual memory management, which requires the programmer to specify which objects to deallocate and return to the memory system.

Garbage collection (computer science)

However, many systems use a combination of approaches, including other techniques such as stack allocation and region inference. Garbage collection, like other memory management techniques, may take a significant proportion of total processing time in a program and can thus have significant influence on performance. The basic principles of garbage collection are: Find data objects in a program that cannot be accessed in the future.Reclaim the resources used by those objects. Garbage collection frees the programmer from manually dealing with memory deallocation. Dangling pointer bugs, which occur when a piece of memory is freed while there are still pointers to it, and one of those pointers is dereferenced. Some of the bugs addressed by garbage collection can have security implications. Artificial intelligence.

AI research is highly technical and specialised, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other.[5] Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers.

Artificial intelligence

AI research is also divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution of specific problems. Others focus on one of several possible approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[6] General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals.[7] Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI.

History[edit] Goals[edit] Planning[edit] Dartmouth Conferences. The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence was the name of a 1956 undertaking now considered the seminal event for artificial intelligence as a field.

Dartmouth Conferences

People[edit] Founding statement[edit] The project lasted a month, and it was essentially an extended brainstorming session. The introduction states: (McCarthy et al. 1955) [1] A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. Next: About this document J.

A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence

McCarthy, Dartmouth College M. L. Minsky, Harvard University N. Rochester, I.B.M. Frame problem. In artificial intelligence, the frame problem describes an issue with using First Order Logic (FOL) to express facts about a robot in the world.

Frame problem

Representing the state of a robot with traditional FOL requires the use of many axioms that simply imply that things in the environment don't change arbitrarily. For example, Hayes describes a blocks world with rules about putting blocks on top of each other. In a FOL system additional axioms are required to infer facts such as a block does not change position if it's not moved. Situation calculus. Overview[edit] The situation calculus represents changing scenarios as a set of first-order logic formulae. Circumscription (logic) McCarthy 91 function.