Literature in English (UNICAN): RESTORATION AND THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT (1660-1798) Historical Background:- ENGLISH CIVIL WARS (1641-1645, 1648-1649) between the King (Charles I and Charles II, Stuart Kings who overestimated the power of the Monarchy) and the Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell), a confrontation which also had economic and religious overtones (Puritans against the Church of England, urban traders against rural land-owners).- After a protectorate, the Monarchy was restored with James II in 1660 (“the Restoration”).
His attempt to reintroduce Roman Catholicism led to his deposition with the “Glorious Revolution” (1688), which established that the king could only rule with the Parliament’s consent. Restoration Drama and Prose. The Restoration of King Charles II to the English throne in 1660 brought a new change in English literature.
Previously closed theatres were opened again. New groups of writers began to write plays. During the restoration period, we also notice some development in prose work John Dryden wrote his critical work named Essay on Dramatic Poesy. In this work, Dryden compares English drama with French drama. He points out the limitations of French drama and considers English drama to be superior to French drama.
Restoration Literature Characteristics. Restoration Poetry Analysis. The period from 1660 to 1798, sometimes extended to 1832, known as the long eighteenth century, is the age of satire.
The genre traces its roots at least as far back as the fifth century b.c.e. comic playwright Aristophanes, although the models for Restoration writers are primarily the Augustan Horace and the early second century c.e. Juvenal. The Restoration Period in English Literature: Timeline & Overview. This lesson will explore what is known as the Restoration era of English literature, which lasted from 1660 to about 1688.
We'll look at the context, themes, and styles that define this period of literature. Explore our library of over 10,000 lessons Click "next lesson" whenever you finish a lesson and quiz. Got It You now have full access to our lessons and courses. You're 25% of the way through this course! The first step is always the hardest! Way to go! Congratulations on earning a badge for watching 10 videos but you've only scratched the surface.
You've just watched 20 videos and earned a badge for your accomplishment! You've just earned a badge for watching 50 different lessons. You just watched your 100th video lesson. Congratulations! Congratulations! You are a superstar! Incredible. You have earned a badge for watching 20 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 50 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 100 minutes of lessons. The Restoration Period (1660-1700) James II. James II succeeded his brother, Charles II, in 1685.
However, the attempt by James to move his country to absolute Catholicism led to the 1688 Revolution and the removal of James II from the throne. James was born on October 14th 1633. His father was thre executed Charles I and his mother was Henrietta Maria. Introductory Lecture on the Neoclassical Period in English Literature. The Whigs. The term Whig was initially a term of political abuse used by the Tories.
It was meant to discredit those who held different beliefs to the Tories and roughly translated it meant ‘Scottish Presbyterian rebels’. First used in the reign of Charles II, by the time of the Exclusion Crisis (1679 to 1681) it had become an accepted political label. The first Whig ‘leader’ was Shaftsbury and his opponent in the Tories was Danby. The first Whigs were a difficult group to summarise in terms of their wholesale beliefs. However, such a disparate group all shared one value at this time – that the future James II should be excluded from the throne as a result of his Catholicism.
Introductory Lecture on the Neoclassical Period in English Literature. Introductory Lecture on the Neoclassical Period in English Literature Key terms: Restoration, 18th Century, Neoclassical, Augustan, Enlightenment façade, complacency, wit, reason, decorum, self-examination, self-publicizing diary, prose essay, periodical, ode, satire, novel Tory, Whig, non-conformist politeness, taste, self-control The names given to this period are confusing: Restoration, 18th Century, Neoclassical, Augustan.
Chronologically the period covers from 1660 to around 1800 (usual date is 1798, publication date of Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads). It is a period where counterfeiting and façades are very important; in some ways the country was trying to act like the Interregnum and English civil wars had not happened, and there is both a willful suppression of the immediate past and a glorification of the more distant, classical Roman past--which is why it is called the Neoclassical period.
The 18th century: Neoclassicism – The Augustan Age – The Transition/ Pre-romantic Age. The 18th century is known as The Age of Enlightenment or The Age of reason, to stress the rational trend of the period and the attitude according to which reason and judgement should be the guiding principles for human activities .
It saw the birth of a new literary movement: Neoclassicism or Rationalism. This movement was greatly influenced by the ideas of John Locke and Isaac Newton. The importance of Newton is clearly seen in the epitaph written by Alexander Pope: “Nature and Nature’s laws lay hid in night; God said,’ Let Newton be! ‘And all was light”. In his Principia Matematica the scientist showed that the universe was governed by mechanical principles and exact laws rather than by divine ones as it was believed before. Every thing was regulated by reason, nature too.