Patienthåndbogen. Lægehåndbogen. Influenza - Sundhedsstyrelsen. Hvad er influenza?
Influenza er en sygdom, der skyldes smitte med influenzavirus. Virussen er særdeles smitsom og smitter via små dråber fra hoste, nys og lignende. Sygdommen bliver spredt, hvis du indånder viruspartikler eller får dem på hænderne og derefter rører ved øjne, næse eller mund. Influenza smitter også ved direkte kontakt som håndtryk, kys og lignende. Hvis du bliver smittet, vil influenzaen bryde ud i løbet af 1-4 dage. Symptomer på influenza Influenza viser sig ved pludselig feber (over 38°C), muskelsmerter, kulderystelser, hovedpine, ondt i halsen og i nogle tilfælde opkastning og diarré.
For langt de fleste bør influenza ikke give anledning til bekymring, men for nogen kan den være meget alvorlig og føre til hospitalsindlæggelse og i værste fald død. Seasonal Influenza (Flu) - CDC. History of Vaccines: Articles - The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. History of Vaccines. Measles is caused by a virus, morbillivirus, that’s spread primarily via coughing and sneezing, and is recognizable by its well-known rash, which spreads to cover most of the body.
The virus is extremely contagious: on average, 90% of those exposed to someone with the measles will get the disease themselves unless they’ve been vaccinated, or have had measles before. Patients who survive a case of the measles retain immunity to it for life. Although measles has no treatment or cure, most people who catch it do survive the infection. However, the majority of measles patients will feel extremely sick for approximately one week, and up to 30% will suffer some sort of complication to the disease, ranging from diarrhea, ear infections, or pneumonia to seizures or hearing loss as a result of swelling in the brain.
In some areas of the world without widespread access to medical care, up to 5% of children die of the measles. MEASLES BIBLIOGRAPHY.pdf  Preventing Seasonal Flu With Vaccination - CDC. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content Influenza Types Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:
Flu Vaccine Effectiveness: Questions and Answers for Health Professionals. How do we measure how well influenza vaccines work?
Two general types of studies are used to determine how well influenza vaccines work: randomized controlled trials and observational studies. These study designs are described below. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) The first type of study design is called a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In a RCT, volunteers are assigned randomly to receive an influenza vaccine or a placebo (e.g., a shot of saline). Observational Studies The second type of study design is an observational study. Top of Page How do vaccine effectiveness studies differ from vaccine efficacy studies?
Vaccine efficacy refers to vaccine protection measured in RCTs usually under optimal conditions where vaccine storage and delivery are monitored and participants are usually healthy. Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine. The seasonal influenza vaccine is designed to protect against the influenza viruses research indicates are most likely to spread and cause illness among people during the upcoming flu season.
Flu viruses are constantly changing, so the vaccine is updated each year based on which influenza viruses are making people sick, how those viruses are spreading, and how well the previous season’s vaccine protects against those viruses. More than 100 national influenza centers in over 100 countries conduct year-round surveillance for influenza.
This involves receiving and testing thousands of influenza virus samples from patients with suspected flu illness. The laboratories send representative viruses to five World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centers for Reference and Research on Influenza, which are located in the following places: The U.S. BAF29A985FF64B7F981D841A85757020. E910AF35D6F948489D0F293DB49B91DC. Influenza pandemics and preparedness. ECDC_Web_content At irregular intervals, an influenza A virus emerges which is different from the current human seasonal influenza viruses and can not only infect humans but can also cause disease in some of them and crucially is capable of efficient human to human transmission.
The virus has to be novel enough to prevail over the seasonal A viruses, and because of its novelty there can be little specific immunity among humans, except for older people who may have met a similar virus in the past. This new virus can then spread rapidly from human to human all over the world. Because of the lack of human immunity the virus causes a variable amount of severe disease and deaths: this is an influenza pandemic. As immunity increases among humans, and the pandemic virus changes, the pandemic strain becomes part of (and may dominate) the mix of seasonal influenza A viruses, perhaps changing some of the characteristics of seasonal influenza. Pandemic influenza preparedness Framework. Influenza Research Database - Influenza genome database with visualization and analysis tools. Den spanske syge.