Why intersectionality can’t wait. Mourners arrive to mourn the death of Sandra Bland at the DuPage African Methodist Episcopal Church in Lisle, Ill. (AP Photo/Christian K. Lee) Each week, In Theory takes on a big idea in the news and explores it from a range of perspectives. This week we’re talking about intersectionality. Need a primer? Kimberlé Crenshaw is the executive director of the African American Policy Forum and a professor of law at Columbia University and the University of California, Los Angeles, law schools. Intersectionality was a lived reality before it became a term. opinions in-theory Orlando Shooting Updates News and analysis on the deadliest mass shooting in U.S. history. post_newsletter348 follow-orlando true after3th false Today, nearly three decades after I first put a name to the concept, the term seems to be everywhere.
Unfortunately for DeGraffenreid and millions of other black women, the court dismissed their claims. [Intersectionality: A Primer] [Why Equal Protection may not protect everyone equally.] Curriculum for White Americans to Educate Themselves on Race and Racism–from Ferguson to Charleston | Citizenship and Social Justice. When teaching about race and racism, I invite participants to consider the following analogy: Think of racism as a gigantic societal-sized boot. “Which groups do you think are fighting the hardest against this boot of racism?” I ask them.
Invariably, participants of diverse races answer that those fighting hardest to avoid getting squashed by the boot are people of Color. (Keep in mind that I don’t ask this question on day one of our study of race. Rather, participants come to this conclusion after exploring the concept of White privilege and studying the history of race and racism in the United States through multiple sources and perspectives.) “If that’s true,” I continue, “then who do you think is wearing the boot?” “If that’s true, then whose responsibility is it to stop the boot from squashing them? Everyone has a role in ending racism, but the analogy shows how little sense it makes for only those facing the heel-end of oppression to do all the work. But so much work remains.
Every term the Census has used to describe America’s racial and ethnic groups since 1790. From the moment of the first American census, in 1790, through every decennial census we've had since, the categories the U.S. government has used to classify its residents have included the word "white. " That label has been the lone constant in an ever-evolving checklist of identities that reflect the changing demographics of this country — and the changing language the government has used to define it. In 1790, the three categories available were "free white females and males," "all other free persons" and "slaves.
" By 1830, that last category had splintered into "slaves" and "free colored persons. " By 1890, the census separately counted blacks — now all legally free — as "blacks," "mulattos," "quadroons" and "octoroons. " These changes, the Census Bureau points out, have been driven by cultural and economic shifts, by events like emancipation, immigration and the civil rights movement. The term "mulatto" didn't vanish entirely from the census until 1930. The myth of race, debunked in 3 minutes. You may know what race you are, but how would you prove it if someone disagreed with you? The fact is, race is a social and political construct that has evolved in fascinating and often confusing ways over the centuries. Race is a social construct Five racial categories determined by Johan Friedrich Blumenbach With the 1776 edition of his book, On the Natural Variety of Mankind, German scientist Johan Friedrich Blumenbach is credited with creating one of the first race-based classifications.
He decided on five categories: "Caucasian, the white race; Mongolian, the yellow race; Malayan, the brown race, Ethiopian, the black race, and American, the red race. " The US Census proves race is subjective Racial categories in the 2000 US Census The evolution of race in the US Census illustrates just how hard it is to categorize people in a way that is inclusive and accurate. Racial categories are not backed by science Map of regions with high rates of sickle-cell anemia March on Washington. Resources for educators who teach about race & violence | H-Amstdy. Hi H-Amstdy community, I write to draw your attention to a new resource, which I hope teachers and scholars in American Studies will find useful: State Sanctioned: a clearinghouse for information, analysis, and resources related to state sanctioned violence in the U.S.
Especially in the next few weeks, as many of you are crafting syllabi for fall courses, State Sanctioned is an excellent place to find news, commentary, and media coverage of current events, gathered together in one place and organized by theme. These might be useful as discussion starters, supplements to formal reading assignments, for individual student research/papers, or other uses as you see fit. Please forward this to anyone you think might be interested. Sections of the site that might be of particular interest include: (click or copy/paste) Sample Syllabi/Curricula/Lesson Plans: Coverage of current events:
What's Wrong with Cultural Appropriation? These 9 Answers Reveal Its Harm. M.dailykos. We've been told, quite frequently and repeatedly that the problems in the black community that we've seen in Ferguson and Baltimore recently are not the fault of biased, paramilitary, paranoid and violent policing (even if the Bureau of Justice Statistics indicates that black people are three times more likely to be subject to law enforcement uses of force). They are not the fault of racist red-lining that created these impoverished neighborhoods in the first place. They are not the fault of bigoted lending and hiring practices that create roadblocks for those attempting to escape those neighborhoods.
And the fact that black students are disciplined, suspended and expelled far more easily and quickly for the same or lesser offenses, isn't the problem. None of that is the problem. Nope. But what we've heard the most, is that the real problem is the Breakdown in the Black Family™. If only black fathers would spend as much time and energy on their kids as white fathers do. Imagine that? Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's The Eugenics Archive utilizes Flash for enhanced search features, cross referencing, and interactive images created with Zoomifyer.
Get the Flash plugin at Adobe.com. The Eugenics Archive will open in a new window. I prefer the original, HTML-only Eugenics Archive site, take me there. Eugenics Archive Blog Sterilization Laws Based on a task force recommendation, the North Carolina legislature is considering paying $50,000 to living individuals sterilized by the state against their will or without their knowledge.
Examine the Chronicle of how society dealt with mental illness and other "dysgenic" traits in the final section of our website DNA Interactive. He shows how the news talks about black people by talking about white people instead. Here Are 9 Racist Fashion Trends That Need to Die Immediately. A sea change in the fashion and beauty industry is long, long overdue.
In what was certainly not an April Fools' joke, fashion magazine Cosmopolitan drew widespread scrutiny on April 1 for an article released earlier this year titled "21 Beauty Trends That Need to Die in 2015. " The side-by-side images were supposed to highlight trends that should be "in" or "out" for the new year. But, as Mic noted, "Only one mixed-race woman, Nicole Richie, was in the 'Hello, Gorgeous! ' column, while three black women and one Latina were in the 'R.I.P.' column. " Cosmo apologized for the blunder, but this was no isolated incident. The fashion industry has had a troubling history in dealing with race. 1. Hiring black models for photo shoots and runway shows can't possibly be so difficult that industry bosses must resort to using blackface, which has a deeply problematic history. 2. When women of color appear in beauty magazines, photo editors often lighten their skin tone. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. 2. 3.
Here’s the History Behind the Term “Women of Color” Unmasking 'racial micro aggressions': Some racism is so subtle that neither victim nor perpetrator may entirely understand what is going on--which may be especially toxic for people of color. Two colleagues—one Asian-American, the other African-American—board a small plane.
A flight attendant tells them they can sit anywhere, so they choose seats near the front of the plane and across the aisle from each another so they can talk. At the last minute, three white men enter the plane and take the seats in front of them. Just before takeoff, the flight attendant, who is white, asks the two colleagues if they would mind moving to the back of the plane to better balance the plane's load. Both react with anger, sharing the same sense that they are being singled out to symbolically "sit at the back of the bus. " When they express these feelings to the attendant, she indignantly denies the charge, saying she was merely trying to ensure the flight's safety and give the two some privacy.
Were the colleagues being overly sensitive, or was the flight attendant being racist? In other words, she was acting with bias—she just didn't know it, he says. Aversive racism Creating a vocabulary. Taking Action Against Racism in the Media. To create a resource that will provide educators, community leaders, diversity trainers, and all who seek to take action against racism with a resource of high-quality, engaging media clips, discussion questions, activities, and teaching tools ready to use. Further, our intent was not to create a one-time static product, but to open a discussion with a community who seeks together to take action against racism. To that end, we welcome your submissions of activities, media clips, and ideas and will hold fall and spring dialogues about the use of media and teaching to address racism. How to Contribute Our intention is for this site to be a dynamic resource for educators and psychologists and for those who see it to be able to contribute media examples to the project.
We intend to have fall and spring reviews and live inclusive discussions of the media and teaching activities that have been submitted via conference calls open to students and professionals. 7 Reasons Why 'Colorblindness' Contributes to Racism Instead of Solves It. Author’s Notes: While this article argues that colorblindness as a concept is problematic, I’d also like to acknowledge that colorblindness as a term is problematic, as it could easily be considered an example of ableist language.
In the end, I chose to use the term, but I hope that in ridding ourselves of the concept, we can also rid ourselves of the term. Thank you to my former students who have shared their race-based experiences, enabling me to write this article. You’ve heard it said before. You might have been the one to say it. “I don’t see color. Or maybe: “We are all just people.” Or it might have been “…” – the sound of silence. Such comments (and racial avoidance) have a name: colorblindness. The colorblind approach to race is not an accidental phenomenon; rather, it is the result of an education – a training – that many of us have received, especially White Americans.
Many of us are taught from an early age that talking about race – even just acknowledging race – is a no-no. 1. 2. 12 Black Beauty Ads That Show Us Just How Many the Standard Has Changed Over the Years. By Amber McKinnon It’s impossible to browse your favorite online magazine or scroll through your social media accounts and not spot a splashy new beauty ad, or a sneak peek at an upcoming product release.
That’s part of the reason we follow our favorite brands, right? To know what is the latest and greatest in beauty the moment it drops – which is pretty much every day it seems. And why not? Black and multicultural beauty is big business, after all. While iconic beauty brands are offering expanded shade ranges to suit our skin tones, and hiring Black models and celebrities in an effort to profit from our massive spending power, a new wave of indie Black beauty brands have dominated store shelves over the last several years.
They say that necessity is the mother of invention, and the failure of mainstream beauty brands to meet our beauty needs, has led to the creation of some of the most iconic and beloved Black brands. 1920s and 1930s 1940s and 1950s 1960s and 1970s 1980s and 1990s. This Teacher Taught His Class A Powerful Lesson About Privilege. When you say you 'don't see race', you’re ignoring racism, not helping to solve it | Zach Stafford. People love to tell me that they often forget that I’m black. They say this with a sort of “a-ha!” Look on their faces, as if their dawning ability to see my blackness was a gift to us both. When I point out that their eyesight had never left them, that my skin has never changed colors, and that they probably did not really forget that I am black, they inevitably get defensive.
First, they try to argue that it was a compliment; the smart ones quickly realize that complimenting someone on not being black is actually pretty racist, so they switch gears. I don’t see race! This ideology is very popular – like a racial utopic version of the Golden Rule – but it’s actually quite racist. Still, the idea of “colorblindness” is incredibly popular, especially with young people who believe racism is a problem for the older generation and will soon die out. But that ideology does present a very interesting question: If you were truly unable to see people’s skin color, could you still be racist?
Anita Florence Hemmings: Passing For White At Vassar. Anita Florence Hemmings graduated from Vassar in 1897. But though she was an excellent student, she came very close to not getting her degree at all. That was because just days before graduation, Anita’s roommate uncovered her deepest secret. In a school that would never have considered admitting a black student, Anita Hemmings had for four years covered up the fact that she was of African American ancestry. In other words, Anita Hemmings was a black woman who was passing for white, and it almost got her kicked out of Vassar on the very eve of her graduation. Anita’s family: up from slavery Anita Hemmings was born on June 8, 1872. Robert and Dora both identified themselves as “mulattoes,” people of mixed black and white heritage. The Hemmings family lived at 9 Sussex Street in Boston, which is in the historically black Roxbury section of the city.
But the option of openly identifying herself as black was not open to Anita; not if she wanted to fulfill her lifelong dream of going to Vassar. The roots of Little Rock's segregated neighborhoods | Cover Stories | Arkansas news, politics, opinion, restaurants, music, movies and art. Little Rock is today a city of two halves. One, to the east of I-30 and to the south of I-630, is predominantly black and poor. The other, to the west of I-430 and to the north of I-630, is predominantly white and more affluent. Anyone who drives across the city can see this with their own eyes, and anyone who takes the time and trouble to do so can examine the demographic data to confirm it. How did the city, 60 years after the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education school desegregation decision, and 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, end up this segregated? The answer lies in the incredible expansion of segregated neighborhoods since the mid-20th century. Little Rock's housing patterns did not always look the way they do today.
As a result, even during slavery, racially mixed housing patterns in the city were established. The passage of the federal Housing Act of 1949 changed all that. City residents clearly understood what was happening. John A. Jess C. How Watermelons Became a Racist Trope. Blackface! - The History of Racist Blackface Stereotypes. Privilèges du Blanc. Home Page | Racial Equity Resource Guide. For Whites (Like Me): On White Kids | Jennifer Harvey. Passing-with-panache-and-feeling-little-guilt. 12 Beautiful Portraits Of Black Identity Challenging the "One-Drop" Rule The Racial Dot Map: One Dot Per Person | Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service.
The Race Card Project - By Michele Norris. Monday on AC360: Kids on Race: The Hidden Picture. The Modern Racist Paradigm. RACE - Are We So Different? :: A Project of the American Anthropological Association. How Racist Are You?