A group of peyotes, in cultivation. Peyote has been used in ritual contexts for thousands of years. Etymology
Psilocybin[nb 1] (/ˌsɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ SIL-ə-SY-bin) is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms. The most potent are members of the genus Psilocybe, such as P. azurescens, P. semilanceata, and P. cyanescens, but psilocybin has also been isolated from about a dozen other genera. As a prodrug, psilocybin is quickly converted by the body to psilocin, which has mind-altering effects similar (in some aspects) to those of LSD, mescaline, and DMT. The effects generally include euphoria, visual and mental hallucinations, changes in perception, a distorted sense of time, and spiritual experiences, and can include possible adverse reactions such as nausea and panic attacks. History Early
Psilocin (also known as 4-OH-DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin), is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance. It is present in most psychedelic mushrooms together with its phosphorylated counterpart psilocybin. Psilocin is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The mind-altering effects of psilocin are highly variable and subjective and resemble those of LSD and DMT.
Cannabinoids are a class of diverse chemical compounds that activate cannabinoid receptors on cells that repress neurotransmitter release in the brain. These receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by humans and animals), the phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured chemically). The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound of cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major constituent of the plant, representing up to 40% in extracts of the plant resin. There are at least 85 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (/ˌtɛtrəˌhaɪdrɵkəˈnæbɨnɔːl/ tet-rə-HY-drə-kə-NAB-i-nawl or /ˌtɛtrəˌhaɪdrɵkəˈnæbɨnɒl/ tet-rə-HY-drə-kə-NAB-i-nol; THC), or more precisely its main isomer (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol ((6aR,10aR)-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), is the principal psychoactive constituent (or cannabinoid) of the cannabis plant. First isolated in 1964, in its pure form, by Israeli scientists Raphael Mechoulam, Yechiel Gaoni and colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, it is a glassy solid when cold, and becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. A pharmaceutical formulation of (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, known by its INN dronabinol, is available by prescription in the U.S. and Canada under the brand name Marinol. An aromatic terpenoid, THC has a very low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents, specifically lipids and alcohols.
Vorlage:Infobox Chemikalie/Summenformelsuche vorhanden N,N-Dimethyltryptamin, kurz DMT, ist ein halluzinogenes Tryptamin-Alkaloid, welches in etlichen Pflanzen, in den Hautdrüsensekreten der Aga-Kröte sowie auch in Spuren im Menschen und in Säugetieren zu finden ist. Es findet auch Anwendung als Halluzinogen bzw. Entheogen, indem es geraucht oder injiziert wird. Dimethyltryptamin