background preloader

Eastern Europe

Facebook Twitter

Regionen — OME-Lexikon — Uni Oldenburg. Uzhhorod - Carpathian Ruthenia. Carpathian Ruthenia. Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Osteuropa. Ostdok. OST-WEST Europäische Perspektiven. Herder-Institut: Bestände / Digitale Angebote. CEEOL - Central and Eastern European Online Library - An Online Library where CEE articles, documents, journals, periodicals, books are available online for download.

International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1) Introduction↑ Various pictures come to mind when “Great War” and “East” are mentioned: troops marching through muddy streets lined by thatched huts; troops lying in deep snow-covered trenches somewhere in the Great Plains of Eastern Europe; soldiers on guard on the Carpathian Mountains’ northeastern slopes.[1] These mental scenes have been shaped by wartime propaganda.

International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1)

But they also represent the spatial contrast to other fronts, like the Western, Gallipoli or Italian Fronts. The war in the East was highly mobile, but also had stationary phases, bogged down in heavily fortified trenches or forts (Przemysl 1914/15, etc.) or hindered by natural borders such as the Carpathian Mountains or the Pruth-Sereth Line. International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1) Ober Ost - wikipedia. Ober Ost is short for Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten Deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten, which is a German term meaning "Supreme Commander of All German Forces in the East" during World War I.

Ober Ost - wikipedia

In practice it refers not only to said commander, but also to his governing military staff and the district they controlled: Ober Ost was in command of the Eastern front. After the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk the German Empire effectively controlled Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, parts of Poland, and Courland: former territories of the Russian Empire.[1] Ober Ost itself was assigned present-day Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Poland, and Courland. The land it controlled was around 108,808 km². The Ober Ost was created in 1914, and its first leader was Paul von Hindenburg, a Prussian military hero. Fritz Hartmann, Ob Ost – Wikisource. Memel-Sandkrug. Litauen: Annaberger Annalen. Annaberger Annalen über Litauen und deutsch-litauische Beziehungen herausgegen von Arthur Hermann, Annemarie Lepa und Dr.

Litauen: Annaberger Annalen

Christina Nikolajew im Auftrag der Litauischen Sektion des Baltischen Christlichen Bundes und des Litauischen Kulturinstituts, ist die einzige deutschsprachige Fachzeitschrift über Litauen und deutsch-litauische Beziehungen. Sie erscheint seit 1993 und bringt wissenschaftliche und informative Beiträge zum deutsch-litauischen Verhältnis in Geschichte und Gegenwart und zur Kultur Litauens. Lithuanian book smugglers. Motiejus Valančius, one of the main supporters of Lithuanian press during the ban Book smugglers (Lithuanian: knygnešys, or plural knygnešiai) were people who transported Lithuanian language books printed in the Latin alphabet into Lithuanian-speaking areas of the Russian Empire, defying a ban on such materials in force from 1866 to 1904.

Lithuanian book smugglers

Opposing imperial Russian authorities' efforts to replace the traditional Latin orthography with Cyrillic, and transporting printed matter from as far away as the United States to do so, the book smugglers became a symbol of Lithuanians' resistance to Russification. History[edit] PDL - Main page. <div id="noScriptWarningBox"><a style="float:right" href=" target="_blank" title="" alt="" > Help <img class="noScriptWarnIcon" src=" class="noScriptWarnIcon" src=" style="font-weight:bold">No JavaScript support!

PDL - Main page

<p> To take full advantage of this digital library, please verify if your browser supports <b><i>JavaScript</i></b>. </div> Podkarpacka Digital Library Library. Battle of the Niemen River. Polish and Bolshevik forces at the start of the battle Although this part of the conflict is usually referred to as a battle both in Polish and Russian historiography, some historians argue that it was more of a military operation with a series of battles fought often several hundred kilometres apart.[1] Prelude[edit] Following the Battle of Warsaw in mid-August, the armies in the centre of the Russian front fell into chaos.

Battle of the Niemen River

Mikhail Tukhachevsky ordered a general retreat toward the Bug River, but by then he had lost contact with most of his forces near Warsaw, and all the Bolshevik plans had been thrown into disarray by communication failures.[2] Russian armies retreated in a disorganised fashion, with entire divisions panicking and disintegrating. Lublin. Intelligenzaktion. Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen – „Specjalna księga Polaków ściganych listem gończym” – lista nazwisk Polaków przeznaczonych do eliminacji przygotowana przez SS.


Polish population transfers (1944–46) The Polish population transfers from the former eastern territories of Poland, also known as the expulsion of Poles from the Kresy regions,[1] towards the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II, refer to the forced migrations of Poles occurring first between 1939 and 1941 as a result of the Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland in concert with the Nazi invasion of Western Poland and then the period of re-occupation by the Soviets between 1944–1946.

Polish population transfers (1944–46)

It was an official Soviet policy which targeted over a million Polish citizens. They were removed from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union, which were incorporated into the Ukrainian, Belarusian and Lithuanian SSR following the Tehran Conference of 1943. The ethnic displacement of Poles was agreed to by the Allied leaders – Franklin D. Repatriation of Poles (1955–59) Felix Ackermann: Palimpsest Grodno. Belarus Digest - News and Analysis of Belarusian Politics, Economy, Human Rights and Myths. Belarus Digest starts a series of articles devoted to Belarusian regions.

Belarus Digest - News and Analysis of Belarusian Politics, Economy, Human Rights and Myths

Most often only Minsk ends up in the focus of Western media. But around 80 percent of Belarusians live outside of Minsk. Each region has its own political, economic and cultural peculiarities. The series begins with Hrodna region and will also cover Brest, Vitsebsk, Homel and Mahiliou regions. Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii. ЭтоРетро.ru - старые фото городов  > Главная страница. Russian Revolution, Civil War and USSR 1917-1991. The Harvard Project on the Soviet Social System Online.

Gulag. Gulag bezeichnet ein umfassendes Repressionssystem in der Sowjetunion.


Es bestand aus Zwangsarbeitslagern, Straflagern, Gefängnissen und Verbannungs­orten. Sie dienten der Unterdrückung politischer Gegner, der Ausbeutung durch Zwangsarbeit und der Internierung von Kriegsgefangenen. Das Lagersystem stellte ein wesentliches Element der stalinschen Herrschaft dar. anhören? /i, übersetzt „Hauptverwaltung der Besserungsarbeitslager“. Die Mehrheit der Wissenschaftler kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass die sowjetischen Arbeitslager – im Unterschied zu den deutschen Vernichtungslagern – nicht mit dem Ziel der planmäßigen Ermordung errichtet wurden; die hohen Todeszahlen sind auf die unmenschlichen Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen zurückzuführen und wurden von Lenins und in gesteigertem Umfang von Stalins Regime billigend in Kauf genommen.[1] Geschichte[Bearbeiten] Zaristisches Lagersystem[Bearbeiten]

Tragödie von Nasino.