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A Complex Disorder. Factors that likely contribute to obesity include disruptions to intercellular signaling, increased inflammation, and changes to the gut microbiome.

A Complex Disorder

Some 20 percent of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. can be attributed to obesity, making it the number-one preventable cause of cancer death in the country. But with myriad metabolic and inflammatory changes associated with obesity, determining the mechanisms that underlie the obesity-cancer link has proven challenging. Insulin Resistance Cell Signaling Active Adipocytes Inflammation. Obesity and the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute. An article was published late last year by Jeff Gordon which studied the impact of human's microbiome in mice.

Obesity and the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute

In the paper the researchers studied pairs of human twins who were discordant in obesity, meaning one of the twins was obese and the other was not. Each twin's microbiome was transplanted into a germ-free mouse. The results showed that the obese twin's microbiome made the mouse obese, whereas the lean twin's microbiome made the mouse lean. Then, the two mice were put together and fed a low fat diet.

Could a leaky gut be making you fat? Endotoxemia and Weight Regulation.

This is a post from the Gut Critters blog that ended November 18, 2016. Ray Medina gave permission for his material to be copied as long as it was attributed to him and not used for commercial purposes. – kiraonysko

Soybean Oil and Metabolic Syndrome. How Fats Influence the Microbiome. “This paper, which had nicely controlled conditions, demonstrated that type of fat is really important for shaping microbial communities and their functional dynamics, which in turn impact our health,” said Vanessa Leone, a postdoc studying host-microbe interactions at the University of Chicago who was not involved in the study.

Pet Peeve: Lard, used as their saturated fat, has a very large fraction that is polyunsaturated. – kiraonysko

“It had been previously shown that switching to a high-fat diet markedly and rapidly alters the gut microbiota, but this study goes farther to show that feeding different types of fat result in very different composition of gut microbiota,” Sean Davies, a professor of pharmacology at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, wrote in an email to The Scientist.

How Fats Influence the Microbiome

Intestinal Permeability and Visceral Fat Accumulation. Can Gut Dysbiosis Sabotage Weight Loss. Gut Microbes Signal To Your Brain When They Are Full. Don’t have room for dessert?

Gut Microbes Signal To Your Brain When They Are Full

The bacteria in your gut may be telling you something. Twenty minutes after a meal, gut microbes produce proteins that can suppress food intake in animals, reports a study published in Cell Metabolism. The researchers also show how these proteins injected into mice and rats act on the brain reducing appetite, suggesting that gut bacteria may help control when and how much we eat. When you eat and what you eat may lead to obesity — The American Microbiome Institute. Our bodies’ internal circadian clock may be profoundly important to our health, especially as it pertains to our metabolism.

When you eat and what you eat may lead to obesity — The American Microbiome Institute

Research has shown that people who have altered sleep cycles, like those who work the night shift, are at an increased risk for diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Gut Microbes, Obesity, and the Circadian Rhythm – Chronobiology.com. How much does the amount of sleep you get affect your overall energy and mood?

Gut Microbes, Obesity, and the Circadian Rhythm – Chronobiology.com

Most people would agree that getting enough sleep on a regular basis is very important for a person’s well-being and performance in life’s tasks. Not only is the amount of sleep important, but also our sleep cycles are critical, like when we work the night shift or experience jet lag, our bodies pay the price for not being on a natural cycle. The type of science that studies our biological rhythms is known a chronobiology, and new research shows that changes in our circadian rhythm, or rhythms that follow a 24-hour cycle, and eating patterns can lead to obesity.

Obesity and the daily cycle of the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute. We recently wrote a blog about an article discussing how sleeping patterns affected the microbiome and may contribute to obesity, but what about eating patterns?

Obesity and the daily cycle of the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute

A paper published last week in Cell Metabolism aimed to answer this question. Are Antibiotics Making Us Fat? It’s no secret that America has a weight problem.

Are Antibiotics Making Us Fat?

According to the latest statistics from the Centers for Disease Control, more than a third of U.S. adults are obese — nearly 79 million people. On top of that, obesity also affects our kids, with nearly 18 percent of children and 21 percent of adolescents categorized as obese. The price tag for our girth as a nation is equally impressive. In 2008, the medical cost of obesity in the U.S. came to $147 billion, as obesity-related diseases — including heart disease, stroke, and diabetes — ranked among the leading causes of preventable death.

More than likely, when it comes to explaining all of those extra pounds, you think you’ve heard it all before. Carbohydrates: Why quality trumps quantity. Potatoes, Resistant Starch, and Weight Loss. Over and over I hear that potatoes are fattening, yet the science is shows the complete opposite.

Potatoes, Resistant Starch, and Weight Loss

Potatoes aid in weight loss. Specifically, it’s the resistant starch (RS) in potatoes that might make the most difference. A good way to get more RS in your diet is to simply serve potatoes as leftovers. The overnight cooling allows retrograded RS3 to form inside the starchy foods. Too easy! Microbesity. ANDRZEJ KRAUZEA decade ago, gut microbiologist and genomicist Jeffrey Gordon’s postdoc Fredrik Bäckhed at Washington University in St.

Microbesity

Louis made a startling discovery: adding gut microbes from normal, healthy mice to germ-free mice significantly increased the latter’s body fat (PNAS, 101:15718-23, 2004). This finding prompted another of Gordon’s postdocs, Ruth Ley, to suggest that University of Colorado computational biologist Rob Knight apply his new microbe-comparing computational tools to obese and lean mice. “I thought it seemed like a long shot” that they would see significant effects, recalls Knight, now at the University of California, San Diego, in an email. The long shot paid off, however, with a 2005 paper in PNAS that found that obese and lean mice indeed had different gut microbiomes (102:11070-75).

The insight ultimately launched deeper investigations into the relationship between the microbiome and obesity. Other researchers have investigated more controversial options. An obese-type gut microbiome can lead to neurobehavioral pathology — The American Microbiome Institute. Obesity is a complex condition with an extensive range of health complications. Among many other issues, neurobehavioral deficits in learning, memory, and executive function are observed in this disorder. However, the cause behind the manifestations of these deficits remains unclear, and new data suggest that obesity by itself may not be the origin of these neurobehavioral complications.

In other words, neurobehavioral deficits may not be caused by obesity, but rather by the microbiome that develops from the high-fat diet that leads to obesity. A recent study supports this supposition, demonstrating that an “obese-specific” gut microbiome may be the driving force behind these neurobehavioral complications. Researchers hypothesized that microbiome communities that develop from a sustained high-fat diet could by themselves induce neurobehavioral maladies, independent of diet, adipose fat accumulation, and/or metabolic dysfunction.

Gut Bugs to Brain: You’re Stuffed. Bacteria in the intestine produce proteins that stop rodents from eating. FLICKR, NIAIDWhen animals eat, gut bacteria numbers spike. It also appears that the organisms have a means of limiting growth: by sending signals to their host to stop eating. Researchers reported in Cell Metabolism today (November 24) that E. coli produce proteins that stimulate the release of satiety hormones and curb eating in mice and rats. “It suggests that the growth and activity of the microbiome might specifically regulate appetite and feeding behavior,” Kevin Murphy, an endocrinologist at Imperial College London who was not involved with the study, told Science News. The researchers observed that commensal E. coli are no longer proliferating 20 minutes after an animal eats, and that the bacteria produce a different suite of proteins than during mealtimes.

Murphy said more studies are needed to determine whether the results from Fetissov are physiologically relevant. Apple-Derived Pectin Modulates Gut Microbiota, Improves Gut Barrier Function, and Attenuates Metabolic Endotoxemia in Rats with Diet-Induced Obesity. Akkermansia muciniphila Prebiotics and Obesity. Prebiotics and Weight Regulation. New study suggests gut microbiome directly influences BMI, triglyceride, and HDL levels — The American Microbiome Institute. The microbiome has long been associated with cardiovascular disease, especially after studies showing differences between the gut microbiomes of obese and slim individuals. The mechanisms by which the microbiome may be influencing heart disease are still unknown, but there are a few mechanisms that have been identified.

For example, as has been previously discussed on this blog, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in the blood is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, and is produced by gut bacteria from choline and carnitine. In addition, systemic, chronic inflammation is associated with heart disease, and our avid readers will know that the microbiome can cause chronic inflammation in the vagina, gut, and mouth. Overall though, a direct relationship between specific bacteria and heart disease has not been shown. A recent epidemiological study though, did just that. The fungal microbiome in obese individuals — The American Microbiome Institute. We hear mostly about the bacterial microbiome but there are other microbiomes out there like the virome (virus microbiome) and mycobiome (fungal microbiome).

The mycobiome is an important part of the gastrointestinal tract and fungal microorganisms make up between .03-2% of the total microorganisms in the gut. A recent study out of Spain characterized the mycobiome of obese individuals and compared them to non-obese individuals. Microbiome based therapy prevents weight gain in obese individuals — The American Microbiome Institute. Many people have heard that eating fiber is good for your health and helps to prevent weight gain. One of the reasons for this, as we have blogged about before, is thought to be related to the short chained fatty acids (SCFAs) that are produced by the microbiome from fiber. In mouse models, mice that receive a fecal transplant containing a microbiome with a high capacity for generating SCFAs show reduced weight gain. The SCFAs appear to induce the production of certain hormones associated with appetite control.

The problem with human interventions of fiber-based diets is that an unpalatable amount of fiber is normally required, and very little of it is eventually converted into SCFAs. Scientists from England recently tried to tackle this problem by introducing one type of SCFA, propionate, into the colons of obese humans to investigate its effects on weight gain. The role of probiotics in treating metabolic disorders - Gut Microbiota for Health. New insights into how Akkermansia muciniphila improves metabolic health, leading to first human safety trial - Gut Microbiota for Health. Previous studies have identified Akkermansia muciniphila as an important bacterium in metabolic health—able to prevent the development of obesity in animal models. Gastric bypass surgery alters microbiome which possible contributes to weight loss — The American Microbiome Institute.

Gut Microbiome After Weight-Loss Surgery. Gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics may not affect metabolism of obese individuals in the short term - Gut Microbiota for Health. Although there is strong evidence in mouse models of obesity that the gut microbiome can be manipulated to target obesity-related metabolic disorders, evidence in humans is scarce. Altered Microbiome Contributes to Exaggerated Post-Diet Weight Regain in Mice. Obesity-associated microbiome composition can persist after weight loss, affecting the exchange of metabolites between a mouse and its resident bugs, researchers report. Lose weight, gain it back. Casein Improves Lipid Metabolism - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone.

The Curious Case of the Gluten Free Mice. Whole Health Source: The Body Fat Setpoint. One pound of human fat contains about 3,500 calories. That represents roughly 40 slices of toast. So if you were to eat one extra slice of toast every day, you would gain just under a pound of fat per month. Whole Health Source: The Body Fat Setpoint, Part II: Mechanisms of Fat Gain. Whole Health Source: The Body Fat Setpoint, Part III: Dietary Causes of Obesity. [2013 update: I've edited this post to remove elements that I feel were poorly supported. Whole Health Source: The Body Fat Setpoint, Part IV: Changing the Setpoint. Prevention is Easier than Cure Experiments in animals have confirmed what common sense suggests: it's easier to prevent health problems than to reverse them. Weight loss yo-yo: How the gut reverses effects of dieting. How Your Gut Microbiota Can Make You Fat (or thin) - Selfhacked. Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology.

Will Engineered Super-Bacteria Help Even Gluttons to Stay Lean? Vanderbilt Scientists "Produce" Anti-Obesity Bacteria to be Administered in the Drinking Water - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone. Different types of dietary fat affect obesity through changes to the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute. Could Gut Bacteria Be to Blame for Your Stubborn Belly Fat? Do You Have the Gut(s) to Lose 8% Belly Fat in 12 Weeks? Lactobacillus gasseri (LG2055) Can Fix Your Gut Problems - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone. Probiotics + Green Tea - Synergistic Superstack or Sciency Non-Sense? Green Tea Alone Totally Blunts HFD Induced Weight Gain, L. Plantarum Does Not Add to Its Effects - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone.

Fighting to Stay Lean? These 20+ Anti-Obesity Agents Have the Potential to Inhibit Fat Gain Right at the Cellular Level - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone.