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Meat and Fat

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Resistant Starch and Red Meat. The Paleo Community is once again backed into a corner, defending “meat.”

Resistant Starch and Red Meat

The World Health Organization recently released a report that says: Overall, the Working Group classified consumption of processed meat as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) on the basis of sufficient evidence for colorectal cancer. Additionally, a positive association with the consumption of processed meat was found for stomach cancer. The Working Group classified consumption of red meat as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A). In making this evaluation, the Working Group took into consideration all the relevant data, including the substantial epidemiological data showing a positive association between consumption of red meat and colorectal cancer and the strong mechanistic evidence.

According to the World Health Organization: Processed meats cause cancer; Cooked red meat probably causes cancer. A diet high in resistant starch has been shown to overcome the cancer-causing effects of meat. Or: Conclusion Tim. Chowing Down On Meat, Dairy Alters Gut Bacteria A Lot, And Quickly. To figure out how diet influences the microbiome, scientists put volunteers on two extreme diets: one that included only meat, egg and cheese and one that contained only grains, vegetables and legumes.

Chowing Down On Meat, Dairy Alters Gut Bacteria A Lot, And Quickly

Morgan Walker/NPR hide caption toggle caption Morgan Walker/NPR To figure out how diet influences the microbiome, scientists put volunteers on two extreme diets: one that included only meat, egg and cheese and one that contained only grains, vegetables and legumes. Looks like Harvard University scientists have given us another reason to walk past the cheese platter at holiday parties and reach for the carrot sticks instead: Your gut bacteria will thank you.

Switching to a diet packed with meat and cheese — and very few carbohydrates — alters the trillions of microbes living in the gut, scientists report Wednesday in the journal Nature. The change happens quickly. "I mean, I love meat," says microbiologist Lawrence David, who contributed to the study and is now at Duke University. Red meat, atherosclerosis, and the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute. Red meat is rich in a molecule called L-carnitine.

Red meat, atherosclerosis, and the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute

The researchers fed this molecule to germ free mice, mice on antibiotics, and control mice and discovered that those with a healthy microbiome produced high levels of TMAO. They proved a new pathway for this conversion, via an intermediate molecule called γ-Butyrobetaine, by detecting genes for its production. They then proved that γ-Butyrobetaine alone could be converted to trymethyl-amine (TMA) by the microbiome. (TMA is the precursor to TMAO before being acted on by the liver.) Next, they discovered that a diet consisting of L-carnitine or γ-Butyrobetaine shifted the microbiome to be enriched in bacteria that could efficiently break them down to convert them to TMAO.

Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal product consumption, not fiber. Microbiome and Meat: Let the Silly Season Begin. I’ve been meaning to get this one out of the way.

Microbiome and Meat: Let the Silly Season Begin

How Fats Influence the Microbiome. “This paper, which had nicely controlled conditions, demonstrated that type of fat is really important for shaping microbial communities and their functional dynamics, which in turn impact our health,” said Vanessa Leone, a postdoc studying host-microbe interactions at the University of Chicago who was not involved in the study.

How Fats Influence the Microbiome

“It had been previously shown that switching to a high-fat diet markedly and rapidly alters the gut microbiota, but this study goes farther to show that feeding different types of fat result in very different composition of gut microbiota,” Sean Davies, a professor of pharmacology at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, wrote in an email to The Scientist. Davies, too, was not involved in the research. A team led by investigators at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden fed mice diets with the same total number of calories, but some mice received nearly all their fat intake from fish oil, while others received large amounts of lard. R. Different diets can affect C. diff infection and survival — The American Microbiome Institute. We’ve covered the topic of Clostridium difficile infection extensively on this blog.

Different diets can affect C. diff infection and survival — The American Microbiome Institute

We know that infection of this bacteria (CDI) can be nasty, sometimes even leading to death. A lot of research has been done to find ways to treat the effects of C. diff infection or to find out how the infection is acquired, but few papers have investigated dietary interventions to help treat CDI. A new study published by PLoS One examined this, studying how different diets, and specifically how protein content of those diets, affected the severity of CDI. 7-8 week old male mice were weighed and separated into five groups, each given a different diet.

One group was fed a protein-deficient 2% protein diet, and a counterpart group was fed a 20% protein diet. Mice on the 20% protein diet showed delayed onset disease with a 25% survival rate over 2 weeks. Lactobacillus vs. Oscillibacter! Does (Saturated) Fat Tip The Scale Towards Leaky Gut, Obesity & Visceral Inflammation? - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone. Having tons of subcutaneous fat is certainly unaesthetic, but as science would have it, probably more healthy than a mediocre amount of superfluous visceral fat.

Lactobacillus vs. Oscillibacter! Does (Saturated) Fat Tip The Scale Towards Leaky Gut, Obesity & Visceral Inflammation? - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone

But why is that? I mean, what makes the difference? It cannot be the location, can it? Different types of dietary fat affect obesity through changes to the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute. Dietary fat comes in many in many different forms, such as saturated fats that come from foods like lard, and polyunsaturated fats that come from foods like fish oil.

Different types of dietary fat affect obesity through changes to the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute

It is generally believed that saturated fats lead to inflammation and obesity, but that polyunsaturated fats are healthier, and can counteract inflammation and promote healthy metabolism. The role of the microbiome in mediating these effects is still unknown, but is beginning to be elucidated. A team of researchers from Sweden, Belgium and Denmark showed that the lipids themselves alter the microbiome, which induces the characteristic inflammation associated with ingesting saturated fats. Their results were published in the journal Cell Metabolism. Saturated Fat Kills Gut Bacteria & Modifies Genes in the Distal Small Intestine - Another Reason Why We Get Fat? Plus: Bacteria, Fiber, SCFA, GLP-1 & PYY Revisited - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone. I guess some of you have already noticed that I was (and probably am now, again) somewhat behind, as far as answering your questions, comments an wise remarks are concerned.

Saturated Fat Kills Gut Bacteria & Modifies Genes in the Distal Small Intestine - Another Reason Why We Get Fat? Plus: Bacteria, Fiber, SCFA, GLP-1 & PYY Revisited - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone

Actually it is still more of a coincidence that today's SuppVersity news, which, as you see is not an Adelfo Cerame post (don't forget to keep the fingers crossed for him! This is his weekend!)