German Blockade. Armed with contraband lists, British naval ships spent the war patrolling the North Sea, intercepting and detaining thousands of merchant ships thought to be harbouring cargo bound for enemy shores. This aggressive display of maritime power aroused considerable anger in neutral countries, many of whom enjoyed strong trading links with Germany. Tension was heightened after the North Sea was declared a British 'military area' on 3 November 1914. Despite complaints about breaches of international law, however, most neutral merchant ships agreed to put into British ports for inspection and were subsequently escorted - minus any 'illegal' cargo bound for Germany - through the British-laid minefields to their final destinations.
The blockade strategy worked effectively. Memorandum to War Cabinet on trade blockade (327k)Transcript. The Great Enemy—Infectious Disease. Treaty of Peace with Germany (Treaty of Versailles) 1899 Hague Convention (II) Text. Jesuit Expulsion in the New World. So as not to fatten up the page on Jesuit Mining activities, I will provide separate pages for historical facts and proofs of claims. First, a quick background on what was going on with Spain in this time period: Pope Benedict XIV, in 1741, issues a Papal Bull that effectively disowns the Order of Jesus.
He dies in March of 1767, and is replaced by Pope Clement XIII, who will support the Jesuits. King Charles III had taken the throne in 1760. He did not like the Inquisitions or Inquisitors. He supported a new movement called "The Enlightenment". The Jesuits supported the Inquisitions which were attacking the Enlightenment. There had been much intrigue in Portugal in 1759. Spain lost much in its' War with Britain in 1762. In Europe, it happened in 02 April 1767. The Jesuit Expulsion in The New World happened quickly and quietly as well. One of the very few exceptions allowed, was to Father Joseph Och SJ. One is the Marquis d'Ossun. There, you have the Suppression of the Jesuits. Best-Mike. John Mawe. Pedro I and Pedro II. Portrait of Pedro I in Sao Paulo at age 23, from the Museu Paulista. Brazil’s history in the nineteenth century was dramatically shaped by events in Europe—namely, the ascendancy of Napoleon Bonaparte to the throne of France, and his subsequent conquest of much of continental Europe, including the Iberian Peninsula.
As Napoleon’s forces marched on Portugal, which had been a consistent ally of the Britain, France’s nemesis, the royal court fled for the new world, establishing a court in Rio de Janeiro in 1808. During his 13-year stay in Rio, Dom João VI brought a number of European-style institutions to the city—a printing press, an opera house, naval and military academies, and much more—so much so that, even after Napoleon’s defeat and exile, the Portuguese monarch did not want to return to the court in Lisbon. He found himself more comfortable in Brazil. By choosing a far-away colony as a seat of power, João angered other European countries. Coronation of Pedro I Pedro was lucky. France Militaire. France Militaire. Histoire des Armées Françaises de Terre et de Mer de 1792 à 1837 By A. Hugo, published by Delloye, Paris, 1838 Vol. 4 pp 58-68 “Expédition du Portugal” Translated by Tim Mahon Preparations against Portugal Since 29th September 1801, when Portugal concluded a peace treaty with France in Madrid, the court at Lisbon had resisted all the intrigues of British agents, who had several times tried to persuade it to renounce its policy of neutrality and top draw it into the Coalition.
But a large part of the Portuguese population – principally that of Lisbon – did not share their government’s belief that France had only benevolent intentions towards their country. Meanwhile, England had begun to exercise its influence on the Portuguese court again. Napoleon was not at all moved by the Prince Regent’s threat to move the seat of his government to Brazil. March of the French by the valley of the Tagus The French army suffered greatly during the march from Salamanca to Alcantara. Notes. Board of Finance of the Province of São Paulo. Extra Primary Source about Jesuits. World War I Document Archive. List of Primary Sources for Chapter 2. Brazil and World War 2 Tertiary Source. List of countries in Hague Convention. Jesuit missions Tertiary Source. In 1549, Portuguese King João III sent the first Jesuit mission to Brazil, under the leadership of Father Manuel da Nóbrega, during the first governor-generalship in Bahia of Governor Tomé de Souza.
In this initial effort to colonize and develop Brazil, the Society of Jesus, a Catholic order that traveled the world in their mission of education and evangelization, proved enormously useful to the crown. Their strategy to pacify and subjugate the indigenous population included the forced recruitment of indigenous labor and the instruction and conversion of native people in Jesuit-controlled Indian villages, called aldeias. As a way of facilitating communication beween different native peoples and the Portuguese, the Jesuits established a standard form of Tupi, the main language of the indigenous groups living in the initial areas conquered by Europeans.
“Steyger-Praetjen Tusscjem Jan Batavier en Maetroos” (1624). What role did the Jesuits play in the development of Colonial Brazil? Sources. Possible Sources. Cuba Castro Speech DatabaseSearchable database of Castro speeches transcribed and translated into English. Cuban Heritage Digital Collection "The Cuban Heritage Digital Collection (CHDC) is a digital gateway to finding aids and primary sources selected from the Cuban Heritage Collection (CHC) of the Otto G. Richter Library at the University of Miami. It is currently comprised of archival collection finding aids and the digitized content of those collections, including photographs, letters, manuscripts, and other documents. " Death of Che GuevaraPart of the National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book series at George Washington University. Provides a brief narrative and a selection of declassified documents. Spanish-American War in Motion PicturesPresentation of "68 motion pictures produced between 1898 and 1901 of the Spanish-American War and the subsequent Philippine Revolution.
" Puerto Rico Trinidad & Tobago. Possible Brazil Art Source. Possible Jesuit Missions Tertiary Source. Possible Jesuit Missions Picture. Different Sections of Brazil History. The cover is a reproduction of an ink and water-color map showing the missions at the mouth of the Amazon. The original is in the manuscript volume by Father Bernardino Castillo de Vide, no. 21 of this exhibit. Independência ou Morte, 1822-1972 Lilly Library Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 1972 Contents 4 Introduction 7 Discovery 10 Indians of Brazil 13 Religion 16 French and Dutch Invasions 19 Colonial Period 21 Science and Medicine 23 Travelers in Brazil 24 Literature 29 Economic Development 32 Portuguese Court in Brazil 35 Independence 38 Additional Works of Brazilian Interest 39 Illustrations 47 Acknowledgements Three hundred and twenty-two years after the Portuguese sea-captain Pedro Álvares Cabral officially landed for the first time on what is today Brazilian soil, a Portuguese prince, impatient with the court politics in Lisbon and prodded by influential Brazilian leaders, severed the connections between the two countries.
Ms. folio, in boards. and. Brazil Sources. Possible Source about Portugal Trade (Chapter 1) Brazillian Travel Sources. Brown University Digital Library of Travel Account of Brazil Brazil, the Amazons and the coast Author: Smith, Herbert H. Brazil, the home for southerners or, A practical account of what the author, and others, who visited that country, for the same objects, saw and did while in that empire. Travels in the gold and diamond districts of Brazil : describing the methods of working the mines, the natural productions, agriculture, and commerce, and the customs and manners of the inhabitants: to which is added a brief account of the process of amalgamation practised in Peru and Chili Author: Mawe, John, Exploration of the valley of the Amazon, made under direction of the Navy department, Herndon, William Lewis, 1813-1857.; Gibbon, Lardner.