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Researcher checking fMRI images Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI ( fMRI ) is an MRI procedure that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow. [ 1 ] This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that region also increases.
Para-sagittal MRI of the head, with aliasing artifacts (nose and forehead appear at the back of the head) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI ), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging ( NMRI ), or magnetic resonance tomography ( MRT ) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize internal structures of the body in detail. MRI makes use of the property of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body.
Diffusion MRI (or dMRI ) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method which came into existence in the mid-1980s. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] It allows the mapping of the diffusion process of molecules, mainly water, in biological tissues , in vivo and non-invasively. Molecular diffusion in tissues is not free, but reflects interactions with many obstacles, such as macromolecules , fibers, membranes , etc. Water molecule diffusion patterns can therefore reveal microscopic details about tissue architecture, either normal or in a diseased state.
Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility PET/CT-System with 16-slice CT; the ceiling mounted device is an injection pump for CT contrast agent Whole-body PET scan using 18 F-FDG
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic [ 1 ] imaging technique using gamma rays . It is very similar to conventional nuclear medicine planar imaging using a gamma camera . However, it is able to provide true 3D information.
Epileptic spike and wave discharges monitored with EEG Electroencephalography ( EEG ) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp . EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain . [ 1 ] In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp . Diagnostic applications generally focus on the spectral content of EEG, that is, the type of neural oscillations that can be observed in EEG signals.