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Twentieth Century History

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Activism in the US · DPLA Omeka. Digital Public Library of America. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Cold War Museum. Additional Links Back to the 1990s In December of 1991, as the world watched in amazement, the Soviet Union disintegrated into fifteen separate countries.

Its collapse was hailed by the west as a victory for freedom, a triumph of democracy over totalitarianism, and evidence of the superiority of capitalism over socialism. The United States rejoiced as its formidable enemy was brought to its knees, thereby ending the Cold War which had hovered over these two superpowers since the end of World War II.

What led to this monumental historical event? However, this project of creating a unified, centralized socialist state proved problematic for several reasons. By the time of the 1985 rise to power of Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet Union’s last leader, the country was in a situation of severe stagnation, with deep economic and political problems which sorely needed to be addressed and overcome. Back to Top Finally, the situation came to a head in August of 1991. Civil Rights Movement - Black History. The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the 1950s and 1960s for blacks to gain equal rights under the law in the United States. The Civil War had officially abolished slavery, but it didn’t end discrimination against blacks—they continued to endure the devastating effects of racism, especially in the South.

By the mid-20th century, African Americans had had more than enough of prejudice and violence against them. They, along with many whites, mobilized and began an unprecedented fight for equality that spanned two decades. Jim Crow Laws During Reconstruction, blacks took on leadership roles like never before. In 1868, the 14th Amendment to the Constitution gave blacks equal protection under the law. To marginalize blacks, keep them separate from whites and erase the progress they’d made during Reconstruction, “Jim Crow” laws were established in the South beginning in the late 19th century. World War II and Civil Rights Rosa Parks Sources. Apartheid and reactions to it. The architects of Apartheid. © Apartheid Museum Archive. In 1948, the National Party (NP), representing Afrikaners, won the national election on a platform of racism and segregation under the slogan of 'apartheid’. Apartheid built upon earlier laws, but made segregation more rigid and enforced it more aggressively.

All Government action and response was decided according to the policy of apartheid. In turn, apartheid failed to respond effectively and adequately to concerns that had led to intermittent labour and civic unrest that erupted in the aftermath of World War II. Consequently, throughout the 1950s unrest in African, Coloured and Indian communities escalated, becoming more frequent and determined. Labour unrest too was in evidence during this period. After the 1948 elections, as the liberation movements intensified their efforts, the Government came down heavily on them. There were other forms of unrest that were spontaneous, largely unorganized reactions to apartheid measures. History of Fashion 1920's - 1930's. History of Fashion 1920’s – 1930’s ‘Fashion is not something that exists in dresses only. Fashion is in the sky, in the street, fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening’ Coco Chanel Copyright © AFP/Collection Roger-Viollet – Concours d’élégance en 1925 The Twenties The decade of the 1920s was an era of vast change; women shocked their men as the hemlines gradually rose, reaching the predominantly mid twenties flapper style.

The American dream dominated an age rich in entertainment, full of crime and prohibition. Art and Culture Copyright © AFP/Harlingue/Collection Roger-Viollet – The “Duke Ellington’s Washingtonians 1925 The 1920s is also known as the Jazz era. Lady Elizabeth Bowes Lyon also known as Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother, married the Duke of York on January 13th 1923. The Prohibition Copyright © AFP/Collection Roger-Viollet – Al Capone The twenties saw the start of the prohibition period. The Flapper Style Shapes and Silhouettes Menswear Accessories The Icons. World War Two - Causes. World War Two began in September 1939 when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany's invasion of Poland. Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany's invasion of Poland, the causes of the war are more complex. Treaty of Versailles In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay for the damage world war one had caused.

Woodrow Wilson wanted a treaty based on his 14-point plan which he believed would bring peace to Europe. Georges Clemenceau wanted revenge. Lloyd George personally agreed with Wilson but knew that the British public agreed with Clemenceau. Germany had been expecting a treaty based on Wilson's 14 points and were not happy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The main terms of the Treaty of Versailles were: The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it was too harsh. Hitler's Actions Failure of Appeasement. The Great Depression - Facts & Summary.

Hoover, a Republican who had formerly served as U.S. secretary of commerce, believed that government should not directly intervene in the economy, and that it did not have the responsibility to create jobs or provide economic relief for its citizens. In 1932, however, with the country mired in the depths of the Great Depression and some 15 million people (more than 20 percent of the U.S. population at the time) unemployed, Democrat Franklin D.

Roosevelt won an overwhelming victory in the presidential election. By Inauguration Day (March 4, 1933), every U.S. state had ordered all remaining banks to close at the end of the fourth wave of banking panics, and the U.S. Treasury didn’t have enough cash to pay all government workers. Roosevelt took immediate action to address the country’s economic woes, first announcing a four-day “bank holiday” during which all banks would close so that Congress could pass reform legislation and reopen those banks determined to be sound. The Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement signed after World War One had ended in 1918 and in the shadow of the Russian Revolutionand other events in Russia. The treaty was signed at the vast Versailles Palace near Paris – hence its title – between Germany and the Allies.

The three most important politicians there were David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson. The Versailles Palace was considered the most appropriate venue simply because of its size – many hundreds of people were involved in the process and the final signing ceremony in the Hall of Mirrors could accommodate hundreds of dignitaries. Many wanted Germany, now led by Friedrich Ebert, smashed; others, like Lloyd George, were privately more cautious.World War One had left Europe devastated.

Those countries that had fought in it, had suffered casualties never experienced before: Those who had fought against the Allies suffered heavy casualties as well: His public image was simple. Territorial Military 1. The World Factbook. People from nearly every country share information with CIA, and new individuals contact us daily. If you have information you think might interest CIA due to our foreign intelligence collection mission, there are many ways to reach us.

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Internet: Send a message here. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International (Doctors Without Borders) Amnesty International. World History Archives: History of world society. The history of world society Hartford Web Publishing is not the author of the documents in World History Archives and does not presume to validate their accuracy or authenticity nor to release their copyright.

The history in general of the world Social class in theory and in world history The world history of women and gender The global history of race and racism The world history of minorities and ethnic and indigenous identities The world history of children and youth The global history of health and nutrition The global history of sociopathology and crime.