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PHYS771 Lecture 9: Quantum Scott Aaronson There are two ways to teach quantum mechanics. The first way -- which for most physicists today is still the only way -- follows the historical order in which the ideas were discovered. So, you start with classical mechanics and electrodynamics, solving lots of grueling differential equations at every step. Then you learn about the "blackbody paradox" and various strange experimental results, and the great crisis these things posed for physics. Today, in the quantum information age, the fact that all the physicists had to learn quantum this way seems increasingly humorous. As a direct result of this "QWERTY" approach to explaining quantum mechanics - which you can see reflected in almost every popular book and article, down to the present -- the subject acquired an undeserved reputation for being hard. So, what is quantum mechanics? Ray Laflamme: That's very much a computer-science point of view. Scott: Yes, it is. A Less Than 0% Chance (p1,.... . ? PHYS771 Lecture 9: Quantum PHYS771 Lecture 9: Quantum
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The natural sciences are the sciences that seek to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world through scientific methods, the cornerstone of which is measured by quantitative data. Based on formal sciences, they also attempt to provide mathematical (either deterministic or stochastic) models of natural processes. The term "natural science" is used to distinguish the subject from the social sciences, such as economics, psychology and sociology, which apply the scientific method to the study of human behavior and social patterns; the humanities, which use a critical or analytical approach to study the human condition; and the formal sciences such as mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to empirical methodology to study formal systems. There are five branches of natural science: astronomy, biology, chemistry, the Earth sciences and physics. Criteria[edit] Branches of natural science[edit] Biology[edit] Chemistry[edit] Materials science[edit] Physics[edit] Natural science Natural science
Philosophy of science Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions concern what counts as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. While the relevant history of philosophy dates back at least to Aristotle, philosophy of science emerged as a distinct discipline only in the middle of the 20th century in the wake of logical positivism, a movement that aimed to formulate criteria to ensure all philosophical statements' meaningfulness and objectively assess them. Today, some thinkers seek to ground science in axiomatic assumptions such as the uniformity of nature. Introduction[edit] Defining science[edit] Karl Popper c. 1980s Distinguishing between science and non-science is referred to as the demarcation problem. Scientific explanation[edit] Philosophy of science
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Neuroscience's New Consciousness Theory Is Spiritual | Bobby Azarian Neuroscience's New Consciousness Theory Is Spiritual | Bobby Azarian “Science is not only compatible with spirituality; it is a profound source of spirituality” -Carl Sagan It appears that we are approaching a unique time in the history of man and science where empirical measures and deductive reasoning can actually inform us spiritually. Integrated Information Theory (IIT)—put forth by neuroscientists Giulio Tononi and Christof Koch—is a new framework that describes a way to experimentally measure the extent to which a system is conscious. As such, it has the potential to answer questions that once seemed impossible, like “which is more conscious, a bat or a beetle?” The decline and demise of the mystical As more of the natural world is described objectively and empirically, belief in the existence of anything that defies current scientific explanation is fading at a faster rate than ever before. This is because modern science has achieved impeccable performance when it comes to explaining phenomena previously thought to be unexplainable. That’s right.
The lunar cycle: effects on human and animal behavior and physiology.
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Genomic Loopholes and Other Weapons - Issue 6: Secret Codes Back in 2000, before MRSA—Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus—had become a household word, Nobel Laureate Joshua Lederberg wrote in the journal Science that “the future of humanity and microbes [would] likely unfold as episodes of a suspense thriller that could be titled Our Wits Versus Their Genes.” Thirteen years later, it is “their genes” that seem to be winning out. In the United States alone, roughly 2 million people suffer from drug-resistant infections each year; according to the most recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report, about 23,000 of them die. While the microbes have cracked almost all of our codes—rapidly evolving around one drug after another—we have yet to fully crack many of theirs. Scientists have a growing understanding of the molecular wizardry by which bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics, but they have yet to circumvent it. Antibiotics are, by far, the greatest weapon we humans have had in this contest. Genomic Loopholes and Other Weapons - Issue 6: Secret Codes
Material Science

Research from Murdoch University could one day turn sandcastles into livable homes / Image: Istockphoto These are just two possibilities presented by a new treatment for sand pioneered by Murdoch University’s Dr Ralf Cord-Ruwisch. The treatment alters the consistency of sand, doing anything from solidifying it slightly to changing it into a substance as hard as marble. “Hopefully it will be civil engineering technology,” says Dr Cord-Ruwisch. “We can say ‘this sand is too soft’, and then we can make it harder. There are many potential applications for this product, says Dr Cord-Ruwisch, with a number of industries already indicating their interest. “It could be used as a mining application,” he says. “It doesn't need oxygenation. “Countries like Holland also have shown interest in solidifying their dikes. “While dikes made from sand are long lasting, there are certain risks if water intrudes into the dike sand and lubricates the sand particles so they start shifting against each other. From sandcastles to solid rock From sandcastles to solid rock
Microbial CaCO3 precipitation for the production of biocement Whiffin, Victoria S. (2004) Microbial CaCO3 precipitation for the production of biocement. PhD thesis, Murdoch University. The hydrolysis of urea by the widely distributed enzyme urease is special in that it is one of the few biologically occurring reactions that can generate carbonate ions without an associated production of protons. When this hydrolysis occurs in a calcium-rich environment, calcite (calcium carbonate) precipitates from solution forming a solid-crystalline material. The biocementation capability of two suitable strains was compared. Urease was the most expensive component of the cementation process and cost-efficient production was desired, thus an economic growth procedure was developed for large-scale cultivation of S. pasteurii. The performance of urease in whole S. pasteurii cells was evaluated under biocementation conditions (i.e. presence of high concentrations of urea, Ca2+, NH4 +/NH3, NO3 - and Cl- ions). Downloads per month over past year
Scientists turn sand to stone Research from Murdoch University could one day turn sandcastles into livable homes using the new technology. Image: iStockphoto Imagine being able to make spray-on roads across the desert, or being able to take a sandcastle home from the beach in the form of a solid rock sculpture. These are just two possibilities presented by a new treatment for sand pioneered by Murdoch University’s Dr Ralf Cord-Ruwisch. The treatment alters the consistency of sand, doing anything from solidifying it slightly to changing it into a substance as hard as marble. “Hopefully it will be civil engineering technology,” says Dr Cord-Ruwisch. “We can say ‘this sand is too soft’, and then we can make it harder. There are many potential applications for this product, says Dr Cord-Ruwisch, with a number of industries already indicating their interest. “It could be used as a mining application,” he says. “It doesn't need oxygenation. “Countries like Holland also have shown interest in solidifying their dikes. Scientists turn sand to stone
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In 2009, Ford brought its new supermini, the Fiesta, over from Europe in a brave attempt to attract the attention of young Americans. It passed out 100 of the cars to influential bloggers for a free six-month test-drive, with just one condition: document your experience online, whether you love the Fiesta or hate it. Young bloggers loved the car. Young drivers? Not so much. After a brief burst of excitement, in which Ford sold more than 90,000 units over 18 months, Fiesta sales plummeted. Don’t blame Ford. Adulthood, Delayed The Great Recession changed young Americans' attitudes about what it means to be an adult.by Derek Thompson In a bid to reverse these trends, General Motors has enlisted the youth-brand consultants at MTV Scratch—a corporate cousin of the TV network responsible for Jersey Shore—to give its vehicles some 20-something edge. Perhaps. Since World War II, new cars and suburban houses have powered the economy and propelled recoveries. The Cheapest Generation The Cheapest Generation
La empresa que cambió forma de comprar con celular Simón Borrero viste jeans y una chaqueta fluorescente. Habla rápido, suelta cifras, datos, sonríe... Tiene 32 años y quiere cambiar el mundo. Pero, ¿qué es lo que hacen? La interfaz, que es como se ven los productos y oferta de servicios en la aplicación, es atractiva y amigable. La historia Simón es administrador de los Andes, pero cuando estaba estudiando, con 700.000 pesos que tenía en el bolsillo, creó Imaginamos, un estudio de software que comenzó a crecer orgánicamente sin ningún otro recurso. Adriana Suárez, directora ejecutiva de Endeavor Colombia, la organización que se encarga de descubrir emprendedores, capacitarlos y conectarlos con inversionistas, conoce su caso de cerca. Entonces la línea del tiempo fue así: “Con Imaginamos aprendimos de software, llegó Grability, que los catapultó. Los cuatro emprendedores tomaron la decisión de mapear en un radio de cinco cuadras, al norte de Bogotá, todo lo que encontraron. La bola de nieve ya no tenía freno. Industria en crecimiento La empresa que cambió forma de comprar con celular
Leslie Kim Gray ahahaha I went to Macy's and had a bra fitting. 1st time ever. $89.00 and $92.00 ahahahaha I don't think so! Happy with my all cotton walmart sports bra 3 for $10.00? 30 · 7 hours ago Kati Carson While I agree that bras are overpriced and we shouldn't judge women for foregoing bras, after a certain size, you medically need to wear a bra, practically, or else have SERIOUS back pain. 16 · 5 hours ago Estela Cabus It's nice if you can buy the cheap Walmart bras, but if you are well endowed you have no choice but to pay for expensive ones at Macy's. 12 · 6 hours ago Elizabeth R. I'm 34DDD and it's impossible to find a decent bra. 13 · 6 hours ago Madelein Araya Hernández Bras are not necessarily the solution to gravity affecting boobs. 10 · 6 hours ago Fernando Chanez It would be nice if a group of women started their own company of women products with prices they think are the correct, that would be much more productive. 5 · 3 hours ago Jessica Wydner 1 · 1 hour ago 2 · 6 hours ago Comments
49 mondes perdus découverts en Chine au fond de gouffres Un réseau de profondes dolines vient d'être découvert en Chine, au sein d'une forêt tropicale humide. L'exploration ne fait que commencer mais promet d'être instructive car ces gouffres abritent une riche biodiversité, végétale et animale. C'est le plus vaste réseau de gouffres du monde. Il vient d'être découvert dans la province chinoise de Shaanxi, près de la ville de Hanzhong, au centre du pays, au sein du massif montagneux de Qinling-Bashan. Dans une forêt dense et tropicale (nous sommes entre 24 et 31° de latitude nord, soit celle du nord de l'Afrique), 49 « trous » gigantesques et souvent approximativement circulaires sont creusés dans la roche calcaire. L'ensemble s'étale sur 600 kilomètres carrés et les dimensions de ces puits sont généreuses. Quelques images de ces gouffres et de leur exploration. Ce n'est pas le plus vaste du monde pour autant, ni même le plus grand de Chine, qui en compte beaucoup. Pourquoi la nouvelle est-elle d'importance ?
Earth sciences

Earth structure and tectonic plates
What is a Subduction Zone? - Universe Today IF you don’t know anything about plate tectonics you might be wondering about what is a subduction zone. A subduction zone is a region of the Earth’s crust where tectonic plates meet. Tectonic plates are massive pieces of the Earth’s crust that interact with each other. The places where these plates meet are called plate boundaries. Plate boundaries occur where plates separate, slide alongside each other or collide into each other. Subduction zones happen where plates collide. When two tectonic plates meet it is like the immovable object meeting the unstoppable force. Subduction zones have key characteristics that help geologist and seismologist identify them. There are some interesting theories about why Subduction occurs in the Earth’s crust. Understanding how subduction zones work is important because it helps scientist to identify areas of high volcanic and seismic activity. We have written many articles about the subduction zone for Universe Today. Related July 10, 2015 Earth Surface
Matt Davies O tym, jak legendarny twórca amerykańskiej literatury science fiction zadenuncjował do FBI swojego polskiego kolegę Stanisława Lema – i co z tego (nie) wynikło. We wrześniu 1974 roku Federalne Biuro Sledcze odebrało list. Zawarte w nim oskarżenia były szokujące – mówiły o istnieniu komunistycznego spisku, dążącego do zawładnięcia sercami i umysłami Amerykanów przy użyciu propagandy, przemycanej za pośrednictwem science fiction. Demaskatorem podstępnego planu był nie kto inny, jak Philip K. "Partia komunistyczna kieruje amerykańskim wydawnictwem, które wydaje wiele kontrolowanych przez nią publikacji science fiction" – stwierdzał autor "Ubika". Philip K. FBI bez trudu mogła ustalić, że Stanisław Lem nie był nawet członkiem partii komunistycznej. Choć mimo najlepszych starań Dicka Lem nie okazał się figurą interesującą dla FBI, z pewnością był taką dla PRL-owskiej bezpieki. Jeden wszakże autor wyłączony był z tej zjadliwej krytyki, a był nim nie kto inny jak Philip K. Philip K. Dick: Lem to komunistyczny spisek | Artykuł
S. Lem – encyklopedia fantastyki - ważne: bibliografia - dozwolony użytek
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