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Merton's sociology of science Merton's sociology of science The organized study of "science" as an epistemic practice and a knowledge product has taken at least three major forms in the past century: the philosophy of science, the history of science, and the sociology of science. Philosophers have been primarily interested in the logic of scientific inquiry and the rational force of scientific knowledge. Historians have been interested in the circumstances, both external and internal, through which important periods of the growth of scientific knowledge have occurred -- the Newtonian revolution, the Darwinian revolution, the "discovery" of cold fusion (above). And because the intellectual frameworks within which philosophers, historians, and sociologists have been educated differ substantially, these meta-disciplines of the study of science are significantly different as well. Robert Merton was one of the giants of American sociology. , and these essays are worth re-reading today. .
Philosophy of Life

Key: The essential Olympians' names are given in bold font. See also List of Greek mythological figures Notes External links Media related to Family trees of Greek mythology at Wikimedia Commons Family tree of the Greek gods Family tree of the Greek gods
List of common misconceptions List of common misconceptions From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This incomplete list is not intended to be exhaustive. This list corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature. Note that each entry is formatted as a correction; the misconceptions themselves are implied rather than stated. Arts and culture Food and cooking Roll-style Western sushi. Searing meat does not "seal in" moisture, and in fact may actually cause meat to lose moisture. Legislation and crime Literature The Harry Potter books, though they have broken children's book publishing records, have not led to an increase in reading among children or adults, nor slowed the ongoing overall decline in book purchases by Americans, and children who did read the Harry Potter books were not more likely to go on to read more outside of the fantasy and mystery genres.[21][22][23][24] Music Religion Hebrew Bible Buddhism Christianity Islam Sports
Lojong (Tib. བློ་སྦྱོང་,Wylie: blo sbyong) is a mind training practice in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition based on a set of aphorisms formulated in Tibet in the 12th century by Geshe Chekhawa. The practice involves refining and purifying one's motivations and attitudes. The fifty-nine or so slogans that form the root text of the mind training practice are designed as a set of antidotes to undesired mental habits that cause suffering. They contain both methods to expand one's viewpoint towards absolute bodhicitta, such as "Find the consciousness you had before you were born" and "Treat everything you perceive as a dream", and methods for relating to the world in a more constructive way with relative bodhicitta, such as "Be grateful to everyone" and "When everything goes wrong, treat disaster as a way to wake up." History of the practice[edit] Atiśa journeyed to Sumatra and studied with Dharmarakṣita for twelve years. Geshe Chekhawa is claimed to have cured leprosy with mind training. 1. 2. Lojong Lojong
Rational Wiki
Philosophy and Ideology

Annual Economics Lecture 2013 – ‘Justice In Economics’ Play Audio: Download Audio: MP3 audio. Download size 21.9MB. Audio duration 45 minutes Peter Bowman, new Head of Economics, on why a healthy and prosperous economy needs to have justice as its foundation, and the ways in which this could best work in practice. Recorded Tuesday 26 February 2013, London Progress with prosperity Download Audio: MP3 audio. Ian Mason on a new vision of the economy, putting the human being at the heart of economic life. Recorded Tuesday 7th February 2012, London Would you sell your mother? Download Audio: MP3 audio. Ian Mason, Head of Law and Economics, explores in his annual lecture the implications for economics of a renewed relationship with mother Earth, the generous source of the wealth and prosperity produced by modern economies. Recorded Tuesday 15th March 2011, London World Without Want Download Audio: MP3 audio. Ian Mason (Head of Economics) with an introduction by Peter Bowman. Opportunity out of Crisis Philosophy Audio | Philosophy Podcasts | Schools of Economic Science | School of Economic Science Philosophy Audio | Philosophy Podcasts | Schools of Economic Science | School of Economic Science
Feminism in Greek literature from Homer to Aris...
The Standard Argument Against Free Will The Standard Argument has two parts. First, if determinism is the case, the will is not free. We call this the Determinism Objection. Together, these objections can be combined in the Responsibility Objection, namely that no Free Will model has yet provided us an intelligible account of the agent control needed for moral responsibility. Both parts are logically and practically flawed, partly from abuse of language that led some 20th-century philosophers to call free will a "pseudo-problem," and partly from claims to knowledge that are based on faulty evidence. Part One - The Determinism Objection Determinism is true. Part Two - The Randomness Objection Chance exists. Examples of the Standard Argument Can you see the two standard objections and the flaws in reasoning or claims of truth that are based on faulty evidence? (70) XXV. John Fiske's Version "Volitions are either caused or they are not. Dl. It is a compelling objection. Thomas Pink's Version The Standard Argument Against Free Will The Standard Argument Against Free Will

U.S. Religion Map and Religious Populations - U.S. Religious Landscape Study - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
Lots of atheists, more Muslims, fewer Christians and Jews: this is the new America Drifting towards atheism: the Washington Post's overview map The Washington Post has produced six massively detailed maps showing the religious make-up of America. The main map is above – if you want to enlarge it you'll have to click through to the Post's report here. The author/analyst, Niraj Chokshi, has uncovered some fascinating material – most of it lurking in the 2010 US Religion Census (data submitted by congregations, not the official US Census) but so much more surprising set out in map form. Did you know there are – possibly – now more religious Muslims than religious Jews in Florida? We're in difficult territory here because the US census isn't allowed to ask people their religious affiliation. There are still more Jews than Muslims in Florida, loosely defined; these figures measure Judaism as a religion. Again, click through to the Washington Post for an interactive map. You think Protestantism is holding its ground? Here's Bill Maher exulting over the trend: Lots of atheists, more Muslims, fewer Christians and Jews: this is the new America
A surprising map of the world's most and least religiously diverse countries The world's most and least religiously diverse countries may not be quite what you think, judging by an extensive report by Pew, from April 2014, that scores and ranks countries on religious diversity by indexing survey data with a mathematical model. The results, to be honest, really surprised me. Here's the data mapped out, with the most religiously diverse countries in blue and the least diverse in yellow: Religious diversity by country, as measured by Pew's Religious Diversity Index. Click to enlarge. The three most religiously diverse countries all turn out to be in East Asia: Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam. The least religiously diverse countries are easier to spot, and are typically dominated by a large Muslim majority: that band of yellow from Morocco, across North Africa and Middle East, all the way to Pakistan. The US is not as religiously diverse as you might think It's a common refrain of conservative Christian Americans that "the US is a Christian country." A surprising map of the world's most and least religiously diverse countries
Ist Theologie eine Wissenschaft?
Hannah Arendt - Ihr Denken veränderte die Welt: Barbara Sukowa, Axel Milberg, Janet McTeer, Julia Jentsch, Ulrich Noethen, Michael Degen, Klaus Pohl, Victoria Trauttmansdorff, Nicholas Woodeson, Sascha Ley, Friederike Becht, Megan Gay, Tom Leic
Credo ut intelligam (lat., „ich glaube, damit ich erkennen kann“) ist eine Kurzformulierung für ein theologisch-philosophisches Programm von Anselm von Canterbury (1033–1109), mit dem er den Glauben rational begründen will, ohne dabei diese Begründung zur Bedingung für den Glauben zu machen. Sie ist in Anlehnung und Kontrast zum theologischen Ansatz credo quia absurdum („ich glaube, weil es widersinnig ist“) formuliert (der früher Tertullian oder Augustin zugeschrieben wurde), und setzt einen ähnlichen Ansatz Augustins fort (Credimus, ut cognoscamus, „wir glauben, um zu erkennen“). Das Programm credo, ut intelligam ist grundlegend für die Scholastik geworden. Die Schrift Proslogion, in der dieses Programm aufgestellt wird, enthält philosophisch-theologisch argumentierende Teile wie auch Abschnitte in Gebetsform.[1] Ausgangspunkt des Werkes ist aber das berühmt gewordene "unum argumentum" ("das eine Argument"),[2] mit dem Anselm zu beweisen sucht,[3] Siehe auch[Bearbeiten] Credo ut intelligam Credo ut intelligam
1. Scope and Role of Distributive Principles Distributive principles vary in numerous dimensions. They vary in what is considered relevant to distributive justice (income, wealth, opportunities, jobs, welfare, utility, etc.); in the nature of the recipients of the distribution (individual persons, groups of persons, reference classes, etc.); and on what basis the distribution should be made (equality, maximization, according to individual characteristics, according to free transactions, etc.). In this entry, the focus is on principles designed to cover the distribution of benefits and burdens of economic activity among individuals in a society. Although the numerous distributive principles vary along different dimensions, for simplicity, they are presented here in broad categories. Throughout most of history, people were born into, and largely stayed in, a fairly rigid economic position. 2. One of the simplest principles of distributive justice is that of strict, or radical, equality. Distributive justice [SEP] Distributive justice [SEP]
John Rawls was arguably the most important political philosopher of the twentieth century. He wrote a series of highly influential articles in the 1950s and ’60s that helped refocus Anglo-American moral and political philosophy on substantive problems about what we ought to do. His first book, A Theory of Justice [TJ] (1971), revitalized the social-contract tradition, using it to articulate and defend a detailed vision of egalitarian liberalism. In Political Liberalism [PL] (1993), he recast the role of political philosophy, accommodating it to the effectively permanent “reasonable pluralism” of religious, philosophical, and other comprehensive doctrines or worldviews that characterize modern societies. He explains how philosophers can characterize public justification and the legitimate, democratic use of collective coercive power while accepting that pluralism. Table of Contents 1. John Bordley Rawls was born and schooled in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2. a. b. c. i. ii. iii. John Rawls [IEP]
Communitarianism [SEP] 1. Universalism Versus Particularism Communitarians have sought to deflate the universal pretensions of liberal theory. Rawls has since tried to eliminate the universalist presuppositions from his theory. Other liberal theorists have taken a harder line against communitarian concessions, arguing that liberal theory can and should present itself as a universally valid ideal. Still, it must be conceded that 1980s communitarian theorists were less-than-successful at putting forward attractive visions of non-liberal societies. By the 1990s, fairly abstract methodological disputes over universalism versus particularism faded from academic prominence, and the debate now centers on the theory and practice of universal human rights. Needless to say, the brief moment of liberal euphoria that followed the collapse of the communism in the Soviet bloc has given way to a sober assessment of the difficulties of implementing liberal practices outside the Western world. 2.
Modern Political Philosophy


Foundation for "A Course in Miracles" - What is ACIM? How It Came A Course in Miracles began with the sudden decision of two people to join in a common goal. Their names were Helen Schucman and William Thetford, Professors of Medical Psychology at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. They were anything but spiritual. Psychologist, educator, conservative in theory and atheistic in belief, I was working in a prestigious and highly academic setting. Although their intention was serious, they had great difficulty in starting out on their joint venture. To continue Helen's first-person account: Three startling months preceded the actual writing, during which time Bill suggested that I write down the highly symbolic dreams and descriptions of the strange images that were coming to me. The names of the collaborators in the recording of the Course do not appear on the cover because the Course can and should stand on its own. What It Is The Workbook includes 365 lessons, one for each day of the year. What It Says
On a remote mountaintop of the Himalayas sits Jhamtse Gatsal (Tibetan for “The Garden of Love and Compassion”), a special school and home for 85 abandoned and neglected children. Founded by former Buddhist monk Lobsang Phunstok, who trained under the Dalai Lama, this unique community gives boys and girls the chance to escape extreme poverty and grow up in an environment where they are free to be themselves and dream about their future. The inspiring documentary Tashi and the Monk tells the story of Lobsang, whose own dark childhood led him to create this safe haven, and his newest arrival, feisty five-year-old Tashi, who was neglected and abandoned by her parents. Directed by Andrew Hinton and Johnny Burke, Tashi and the Monk is Emmy nominated and has won 23 festival prizes including the Best Short and Pare Lorentz Awards from the International Documentary Association (IDA). "As uplifting a film as you'll ever see." - The Week. “Compassion in action.” - Banff Mountain Film Festival. Tashi And The Monk (2014)
The assessment of teaching and learning can be viewed as two complementary and overlapping activities that aim to benefit both the quality of student learning and the professional development of the instructor. Assessing learning alone is not sufficient because the ultimate success of students is also dependent upon their motivation and commitment to learning. Similarly, assessing only teaching behaviors and course activities is not sufficient because qualities of the instructor may be appreciated by students but not optimally helpful to their learning and growth. Done in tandem, assessing teaching and learning can help instructors improve and refine their teaching practices and help improve students’ learning and performance. CONTACT US to talk with an Eberly colleague in person! Formative vs Summative Assessment
Formative vs Summative Assessment
The 3 Stages of Documentation OF/FOR/AS Learning
Philosophy & Politics

Jean-François Revel
« L'Homme révolté » de Camus éclaire les révolutions arabes
Camus par Sartre
Object Lessons
Au-delà du code : vers l’âge de l’”intrication”
Quelle est la forme d’internet

For teachers, it’s not just what you say, it’s how you say it | EdSource
Public vs. Private – Should Student Work Be Public On the Web?
7 Essentials in My Emergency Teacher Toolkit - WeAreTeachers
Western Philosophy


History of Philosophy, Definitions, Concepts


Film and Philosophy

Rhetoric and Philosophy II

philosophy of science

Philosophy of mind

General Educational Philosophy K-12