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The natural sciences are the sciences that seek to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world through scientific methods, the cornerstone of which is measured by quantitative data. Based on formal sciences, they also attempt to provide mathematical (either deterministic or stochastic) models of natural processes. The term "natural science" is used to distinguish the subject from the social sciences, such as economics, psychology and sociology, which apply the scientific method to the study of human behavior and social patterns; the humanities, which use a critical or analytical approach to study the human condition; and the formal sciences such as mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to empirical methodology to study formal systems. There are five branches of natural science: astronomy, biology, chemistry, the Earth sciences and physics. Criteria[edit] Branches of natural science[edit] Biology[edit] Chemistry[edit] Materials science[edit] Physics[edit] Natural science Natural science
Philosophy of science Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions concern what counts as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. While the relevant history of philosophy dates back at least to Aristotle, philosophy of science emerged as a distinct discipline only in the middle of the 20th century in the wake of logical positivism, a movement that aimed to formulate criteria to ensure all philosophical statements' meaningfulness and objectively assess them. Today, some thinkers seek to ground science in axiomatic assumptions such as the uniformity of nature. Introduction[edit] Defining science[edit] Karl Popper c. 1980s Distinguishing between science and non-science is referred to as the demarcation problem. Scientific explanation[edit] Philosophy of science
History of Natural sciences
Natural Resources

The UN Is Aiding a Corporate Takeover of Drinking Water | Water The UN Is Aiding a Corporate Takeover of Drinking Water | Water July 3, 2011 | Like this article? Join our email list: Stay up to date with the latest headlines via email. Early last month, pharmaceutical titan Merck became the latest multinational to pledge allegiance to the CEO Water Mandate, the United Nations' public-private initiative "designed to assist companies in the development, implementation and disclosure of water sustainability policies and practices." But there's darker data beneath that sunny marketing: The CEO Water Mandate has been heavily hammered by the Sierra Club, the Polaris Institute and more for exerting undemocratic corporate control over water resources ( PDF) under the banner of the United Nations. Another major problem is that routinely compromised and controversial institutions like World Bank, International Monetary Fund and regional development banks in general are in control of the United Nations' biggest projects. That kind of illogical corporate performance would logically lead to less control, not more.
The UN Is Aiding a Corporate Takeover of Drinking Water | Water
Gadgets de sangue Se você comprou um celular ou um iPod de 1996 para cá, pode ter ajudado a financiar uma guerra civil. Desde essa data, o leste da República Democrática do Congo — região que abastece grandes empresas de eletrônicos com quatro minérios essenciais para o funcionamento de qualquer gadget — é tomado por grupos armados rebeldes. Essas milícias, envolvidas num dos piores conflitos da nossa época, se sustentam com dinheiro do contrabando desses minerais. Só em 2009, os grupos armados congoleses receberam US$ 185 milhões com a mineração ilegal, de acordo com estimativa da organização americana de direitos humanos Enough Project. “Os valores podem flutuar, mas certamente são suficientes para perpetuar a guerra, comprar armas e pagar soldados”, afirma Aaron Hall, analista de política da entidade. Os quatro minérios envolvidos no conflito são o tântalo, o tungstênio, o estanho e, em menores quantidades, o ouro. A ideia de convencer companhias a pressionarem os fornecedores já funcionou antes. Gadgets de sangue
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science and nature

BBC Earth
Air pressure for kids Air pressure for kids Today we are looking at air pressure. Air pressure is the force exerted by air on any surface in contact with it. We are going to demonstrate air pressure by using it to force an egg into a bottle. What you need: A boiled egg A glass bottle or jar with a neck a little smaller than an egg 2 matches What to do: Place the cooled boiled egg on top of the glass bottle, making sure there is no way the egg fits through. Ask an adult to light two matches and drop them inside the glass jar, quickly place the egg back on top.Watch as the egg drops inside the jar. Ignore the carrot in our jar, we didn’t have any matches so had to fashion a carrot and some cocktail sticks! The Science Bit The matches heat up the air inside the glass jar. Our jar was quite small, so it would be interesting to see what would happen if a larger one was used. Pop back over next week to see how to make a barometer to measure air pressure.
Art & Algae: The Work of Anna Atkins | Full Stop Polysiphonia Affinis from Anna Atkins’ Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype Impressiona “To my dearest father this attempt is affectionately inscribed” reads a touching dedication in the frontispiece of a rare book. The page is a cyanotype print of the most vibrant blue, and the lines of white hand-written words are those of early naturalist and photographer Anna Atkins. Several lifetimes older than myself, Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions is thought to be the first book to feature photographic images. In 1841, William Harvey had published another first of its kind, A Manual of British Marine Algae. I first came to Atkins’ cyanotypes in preparation for Bloom, an exhibition at the Horniman Museum, a museum of anthropology and natural history in the south London suburb of Forest Hill. They appear fragile, but Horniman librarian Helen Williamson assures me of the cyanotypes’ hardiness. No two copies of British Algae are exactly alike. As historians such as Ann B. 1. Art & Algae: The Work of Anna Atkins | Full Stop
Nature Prints

March 18, 2016 by ArtPlantae Nature-printed fern by Henry Bradbury © private collection The Chelsea Physic Garden has announced the the upcoming release of The Nature-Printer: a tale of industrial espionage, ferns and roofing lead by Simon Prett & Pia Östlund, a limited edition book about a lost technique of nature printing first announced in Vienna in the 1850s. Prett and Östlund’s book was inspired by a book Pia Östlund discovered while working at the Physic Garden five years ago. Overwhelmed by the beauty of the images, she set out to rediscover this lost technique of nature-printing. The Physic Garden explains: The quality of the nature-prints was astonishing. In The Nature-Printer, Prett traces Östlund’s determined quest and her attempt to repair broken connections between art, science and engineering. This limited edition book will be available beginning May 1, 2016. Pre-publication price: £150 (currency exchange) Publication price: £195 (currency exchange) Reserve Your Copy Like this: Lost nature printing technique subject of new book inspired by Chelsea Physic Garden | ArtPlantae Lost nature printing technique subject of new book inspired by Chelsea Physic Garden | ArtPlantae
Treasures of the Library : Nature printing This small volume of ‘nature printed’ leaves and flowers offers an intriguing insight into late eighteenth-century botany. It belonged to Charles Darwin (1758-1778), the eldest son of Dr Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), of Lichfield, Derbyshire (himself the grandfather of the Charles Darwin of the ‘theory of evolution’ fame). As a child, Charles had been interested in botany, and had travelled with a botanical tutor in France when nine years old. He either made or acquired the book the year he went up to Oxford University, labelling it number eighty-four in his library, and noting the year as 1774. Charles left Oxford after a year to study medicine in Edinburgh. As a medic, he would be expected to have a knowledge of botany as many drugs were plant based. Charles’s death in 1778, while still a medical student at Edinburgh University, meant that the book reverted to his father, just when Erasmus Darwin was developing an intense interest in botany. Dr Anne Secord Darwin Correspondence Project Treasures of the Library : Nature printing
Medicinsa natural

LA LIMPIEZA HEPÁTICA ¡Clave de la Salud! - LA LIMPIEZA HEPÁTICA ¡Clave de la Salud! - La cura, es facilísima, y sobre todo, natural. Poca gente sabe como limpiar el hígado! La mayoría lo tenemos lleno de sedimentos que atrancan su trabajo, sin saberlo. Echamos la culpa a el estómago, intestino etc.…, pero en la raíz de todas la patologías está el silencioso Hígado. El hígado es el gran olvidado de la medicina! Comparativamente con el hígado, poca gente tiene piedras en la vesícula. Versión con voz informática: Mucho cuidado con operarse de la vesícula, pues esta cura evita la operación. Casi nadie sabe que la gran mayoría de las personas desarrollamos piedras también en el hígado a lo largo de la vida y no lo sabemos porque nadie nos lo ha dicho, pues la medicina sólo las extrae en casos extremos, cuando están calcificadas y se pueden ver en las ecografías. Todo es por la intoxicación, generalmente debido a un hígado que no filtra, o lo hace muy poco y mal. Visita periódicamente mi blog para ver las fotos de la gente que va haciéndola:
La Venas varicosas se desarrollan generalmente debido a dietas excesivamente altas en almidones y azucares concentrados y productos inorgánicos y por lo tanto, la impureza de la sangre forma depósitos calcáreos. Para combatir esta condición hay que hacer lo siguiente: hay que evitar sus causas y luego desintoxicar y vitaminizar al sistema con las siguientes combinaciones de verduras fresca y crudas y algunas hierbas medicinales. Medio litro de combinaciones de jugo de zanahoria y espinaca, en las siguientes proporciones: zanahoria 5/8 partes y espinaca 3/8 parte.Medio litro de jugo de espinaca.½ litro de combinación zanahoria, un poco menos de ¼ de litro; apio, ¼ de litro; espinaca hasta completar el ½ litro.Zanahoria un poco más de la mitad del ½ litro; remolacha, ¼ de litro de pepino ¼. Se toma ½ litro diario.Zanahoria ½ litro; espinaca ¼ litro; nabo 1/8 y berro 1/8 . Se toma medio litro diario. Estos jugos se toman todos los días. También estos te son muy beneficiosos: Como eliminar la Venas Varicosas (Varices) | Salud Viral Como eliminar la Venas Varicosas (Varices) | Salud Viral
Bicarbonato de Sodio: 1.001 utilidades. - Uno de los textos consultados para este artículo es el libro: “Las increíbles propiedades del bicarbonato de sodio”, entretenido e instructivo, podemos descubrir las increíbles virtudes del bicarbonato de sodio, un incomparable aliado para llevar a cabo la mayor parte de las tareas del hogar, para remediar las ligeras molestias físicas y curar pequeñas heridas. Si aún no habéis descubierto el bicarbonato de sodio, probadlo sin perder más tiempo. Os sorprenderá descubrir los grandes servicios que os puede prestar ese polvito blanco. Esta obra pretende dar a conocer en profundidad el bicarbonato de sodio para conseguir un uso óptimo y eficaz. Usos del Bicarbonato de sodio. Higiene personal: 1. 7. 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Olores. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Control de plagas. 1. 2. 3. 4. Otros usos. 1. 2. Salud. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Antes de tomar bicarbonato de sodio: Consulta con el médico si tomas otros medicamentos, especialmente otros antiácidos. No tóxico.
Human Nature

Early Bird or Night Owl? It May Be in Your Genes If no amount of coffee seems to help you feel fresh and alert in the morning, you may be able to blame your genes. According to a new study by the genetics company 23andMe, the preference for being a "morning person" — someone who enjoys waking up early and going to bed early — rather than being an "evening person," who tends to stay up late at night and desperately reaches for the snooze button when the alarm goes off in the morning, is at least partially written in your genes. Researchers at the company found 15 regions of the human genome that are linked to being a morning person, including seven regions associated with genes regulating circadian rhythm — the body's internal clock. "I find it interesting to see how genetics influences our preferences and behaviors," said study co-author David Hinds, a statistical geneticist at 23andMe, a privately held genetic testing company headquartered in Mountain View, California. [7 Diseases You Can Learn About from a Genetic Test]
How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes, and Other Selfish Entities Shape Our Behavior Abstract Psychologists and psychiatrists tend to be little aware that (a) microbes in our brains and guts are capable of altering our behavior; (b) viral DNA that was incorporated into our DNA millions of years ago is implicated in mental disorders; (c) many of us carry the cells of another human in our brains; and (d) under the regulation of viruslike elements, the paternally inherited and maternally inherited copies of some genes compete for domination in the offspring, on whom they have opposite physical and behavioral effects. This article provides a broad overview, aimed at a wide readership, of the consequences of our coexistence with these selfish entities. The overarching message is that we are not unitary individuals but superorganisms, built out of both human and nonhuman elements; it is their interaction that determines who we are. Article Notes © The Author(s) 2015 Humans as Superorganisms
It wasn’t until Europeans took over North America that natives adopted the ideas of gender roles. For Native Americans, there was no set of rules that men and women had to abide by in order to be considered a “normal” member of their tribe. In fact, people who had both female and male characteristics were viewed as gifted by nature, and therefore, able to see both sides of everything. According to Indian Country Today, all native communities acknowledged the following gender roles: “Female, male, Two Spirit female, Two Spirit male and Transgendered.” “Each tribe has their own specific term, but there was a need for a universal term that the general population could understand. The “Two Spirit” culture of Native Americans was one of the first things that Europeans worked to destroy and cover up. “..Must be extinguished before it can be more fully recorded.” However, it wasn’t only white Europeans that tried to hide any trace of native gender bending. Before European Christians Forced Gender Roles, Native Americans Acknowledged 5 Genders – The Indigenous American
This story appears in the February 2017 issue of National Geographic magazine. “She’s very close,” Germán Garrote whispers, pointing to a handheld receiver picking up Helena’s signal. Somewhere in this olive grove beside a busy highway in southern Spain, the Iberian lynx and her two cubs are probably watching us. “Ten years ago we couldn’t imagine the lynx would be breeding in a habitat like this,” says Garrote, a biologist with the Life+Iberlince project, a government-led group of more than 20 organizations working to bring the spotted predator back to the Iberian Peninsula. Indeed, the amber-eyed, bushy-bearded feline has finally started to land on its feet after decades of decline. Luckily for the scientists, lynx breed well in captivity, and 176 have been reintroduced into carefully selected habitats since 2010. Not far from the olive grove, I duck thankfully into the coolness of a drainage tunnel that runs under the highway. That’s not the case for most of the lynx’s relatives. Out of the Shadows, the Wildcats You've Never Seen
Wired for memory: how your brain remembers by completing patterns
Wired for memory: how your brain remembers by completing patterns – The Spike – Medium
In search of biomarkers for autism: scientific, social and ethical challenges : Article : Nature Reviews Neuroscience
Task-Specific Balance Training Improves the Sensory Organisation of Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomised Controlled Trial : Scientific Reports
Normal Development of Brain Circuits
Knoppisar | Mårdfelt
Knoppisar | Mårdfelt
Book reference
nature and seasons

Nature of Science

Natural Remedies

Nature & Travel

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Natural Remedies 2

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Nature, Nurture, & Development

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Danmarks natur og miljø