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Programming Languages

MELT Home - Minnesota Extensible Language Tools
An Example Programming by Contract is known under the name of Design by Contract™ first implemented by Eiffel, a programming language introduced by Bertrand Meyer1. The main principle of programming by contract is to actually add a program’s specification as expressions in the form of meta-data to certain elements in the source code. Let us take a look at the Rocket class below: import org.gcontracts.annotations.* @Invariant({ (started == true && speed > 0) || (started == false && speed == 0) })class Rocket { boolean started = false int speed = 0 @Requires({ ! Note that the code above is valid Groovy code. All annotations have in common that they make use of so-called closure annotations – special annotations which allow Groovy closures as attributes. The @Invariant annotation in this case states that a Rocket instance is either started and flies with some speed, or is not started and stands still. Contracts, contracts, everywhere… Let’s take class Rocket and its start method as an example. An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki
12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need 12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need Preface by Tim Ferriss I’ve written about how I learned to speak, read, and write Japanese, Mandarin, and Spanish. I’ve also covered my experiments with German, Indonesian, Arabic, Norwegian, Turkish, and perhaps a dozen others. There are only few language learners who dazzle me, and Benny Lewis is one of them. This definitive guest post by Benny will teach you: How to speak your target language today.How to reach fluency and exceed it within a few months.How to pass yourself off as a native speaker.And finally, how to tackle multiple languages to become a “polyglot”—all within a few years, perhaps as little as 1-2. It contains TONS of amazing resources I never even knew existed, including the best free apps and websites for becoming fluent in record time. This is a post you all requested, so I hope you enjoy it! Enter Benny You are either born with the language-learning gene, or you aren’t. I think you can stack the deck in your favor. So, let’s get started! Here’s what I suggest instead:
German Language

Englisch - Deutsch Wörterbuch - Startseite Schon seit einiger Zeit arbeiten wir an einer neuen Version der Wörterbuchseite und sind jetzt soweit, dass wir sie Ihnen vorstellen möchten - natürlich verbunden mit der Bitte um konstruktive Kritik und Fehlermeldungen. Einige Ziele der Umgestaltung: Visuell einheitlicheres ErscheinungsbildProminentere Anzeige der Zusatzinformationen wie Aussprache, Flexionstabellen, Beispiele etc.Prominentere Verweise auf Forum, Vokabeltrainer und Sprachkurse (nur da, wo es uns auch sinnvoll erscheint)Aktualisierung und Vereinfachung der internen Strukturen Gleichzeitig war es uns wichtig, dass die Übersetzungsergebnisse nach wie vor als prominentes und vmtl. häufig wichtigstes Element auf der Seite nicht unter den Änderungen leiden. Wir würden uns sehr freuen, wenn Sie die neue Seite ein wenig testen möchten und uns mögliche Probleme oder Anregungen per E-Mail ( oder im Forum zukommen lassen Zur neuen Version Ihr LEO-Team Englisch - Deutsch Wörterbuch - Startseite
MELTA - the Munich English Language Teachers Association
German compound words – Animal Names Funny and bizarre German animal names The German language is famous for some really long nouns (Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaftskapitän comes to mind). This is because German nouns, verbs, prepositions and adjectives are like lego bricks; you can stick them together in almost any way to create new words that encapsulate new concepts. This gives the language a special ability to name just about anything. You could call it the German language’s lego brick-like quality, or Legosteineigenschaft (see what I just did there?). But why does German rely on such an elaborate process to name things as simple as squirrels? The Uncanny X-Tiere Comics are full of heroes with names like super, wonder, iron, ultra, bat or cat followed by -man, -woman, -girl or -boy. Sometimes suffixes get more specific than -tier, but still tend to describe the wrong animal: No, I’m Pretty Sure That’s A Pig Swine seem to be a popular yardstick in German animal taxonomy. Just Plain Weird Eichhörnchen: alternate names: German compound words – Animal Names
Why languages?

The 5 Golden Secrets Of Hyper-Fast Language Learning (Infographic)
Språklig rikedom och språkliga kontraster – ett tack till Jason och Jonas | Mias klassrum Språklig rikedom och språkliga kontraster – ett tack till Jason och Jonas | Mias klassrum Har du funderat på hur många som egentligen arbetar med språk? Nu tänker jag inte främst på språklärare, lingvistikforskare och översättare. Jag tänker på alla som baserar sitt arbete på språk i någon form. Jag tänker på journalister, på författare, på skribenter, på debattörer. Det svenska språket har skapats av dess användare. När jag tänker på vilka i min generation som påverkar det svenska språket mest faller tankarna direkt på två personer. Det som kännetecknar Jason och Jonas är inte bara att de är unga och arbetar med språk. När man arbetar med flera språk ser man kontraster. Jag är själv uppvuxen som enspråkig, uppvuxen i Sverige med svenska föräldrar. Jag och min kollega har tillsammans vänt och vridit på många ord och talesätt under året. Jag vill tro att det är just den här språkliga rikedomen som för Jason och Jonas så framgångsrika i sitt språkbrukande. Majoriteten av svenskarna skulle idag påstå att de är bra på engelska. I språkundervisning blir inte ett plus ett två.
What are The Hardest Languages to Learn? | YouthProjects - Your chance of better life
Language Acquisition

Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Details Created: Wednesday, 09 November 2011 08:53 Updated on Friday, 10 June 2016 13:54 Typical expressive language development "Brown's Stages" were identified by Roger Brown 1925-1997 (obituary) and described in his classic book (Brown,1973). A structural analysis does not include a measure of a child's development in the area of the clarity of pronunciation of speech sounds. Morphology In Linguistics, morphology is the branch of grammar devoted to the study of the structure or forms of words, primarily through the use of the morpheme construct. Syntax In Linguistics, syntax is a traditional term for the study the rules governing the combination of words to form sentences. Morpheme A morpheme is a unit of meaning. happy 'Happy’ is ONE WORD, it has TWO SYLLABLES (ha-ppy), and because it contains only one unit of meaning it is ONE MORPHEME. Stage I Sentence Types Brown's Stage I Brown's Stages ("Brown's Morphemes") I to IV Reference Links
To browse for materials to play: Use the left menu to navigate through the CHILDES corpora. Click once on the folder you want to explore, and it will expand to show any available subfolders and transcripts. Once you have found the transcript you want to review, click its filename. Next to each transcript name is an icon displaying whether the file has linked audio , video , or no media Controlling playback: For transcripts that are linked to media, you can control playback in three ways: Use the controls that display below the media to play, pause, and rewind/fast forward. Continuous playback: By default, media playback is continuous. To run CLAN commands: CLAN commands may be entered in the text box below Command line: (on left, below the directory listing), and run entirely in the browser. Hiding dependent tiers: Codes, comments, events, and descriptions of interest to the researcher are often typed below the main tier. Eng-UK/ | CHILDES Transcript Browser Eng-UK/ | CHILDES Transcript Browser
qr_generator qr_generator Note: each of the QR codes is a text file. There is no need for the mobile devices to connect to the internet to decode them. The correct answers for this quiz can be found here. InstructionsAcquisition Grammar Your job is to find the QR codes which your teacher has put on display around the area. Acquisition Grammar: QR Challenge Question 1 (of 5) Question 2 (of 5) Question 3 (of 5) Question 4 (of 5) Question 5 (of 5)
This is how our bodies betray us in a lie Let me start with a question: How do you know if a person is lying? If you’re like most people, your first response will be something like “Liars don’t make eye contact.” In a survey of 2,520 adults in sixty-three countries, 70 percent of respondents gave that answer. When we are being inauthentic — projecting a false emotion or covering a real one — our nonverbal and verbal behaviors begin to misalign. This idea is not exactly new. Simply put, lying — or being inauthentic — is hard work. When people lie, they are juggling multiple narratives: what they know to be true, what they want to be true, what they are presenting as true, and all the emotions that go along with each — fear, anger, guilt, hope. Simply put, lying — or being inauthentic — is hard work. Lying and leaking go hand in hand. It turns out that we are not much better than chance at accurately detecting lies, although most of us think we excel at it. All participants watched a videotape of ten strangers speaking. This is how our bodies betray us in a lie
The language of lying - Noah Zandan The language of lying - Noah Zandan Detection deception experts such as Pamela Meyer, in her popular book Liespotting argue that there are behavior cues everyday people can use to spot lying. Hear Pam discuss her book and ideas at this NPR link on the TED Radio Hour and listen to: Can You Spot A Liar? Scroll down at this site and check out the related story links. But a host of reputable scientists, like John Fuerdy of the University of Toronto, question the efficacy of lie detectors: "Studies have long shown that polygraphs are remarkably unreliable, particularly for screening job applicants. But all hope is not lost, new scientific research has given us the power to measure the brain like never before. Psychologist Dr. Watch an interview with Dr.
Aristotle, the student of Plato, taught first in Plato’s Academy and then tutored Alexander the Great, and finally established his Athenian philosophical school the Lyceum. The Lyceum is an amazing place to visit. Watch this video to learn more about the its remains here. In the fourth century BC, Aristotle compiled several of his lectures, two of which he wrote when he taught in Plato’s Academy and two later when teaching in his Lyceum, into the treatise, Rhetoric, which he used as a text. His teaching method differed from others; Aristotle was a peripatetic lecturer, which means he walked around as he spoke with his students instead of standing in the front of a room. Aristotle was not born in Athens and was not an orator like the sophists, and one of the most famous orators of the age, Cicero, were. On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse (1991), translated by George Kennedy, is the authoritative text of Aristotle’s treatise. How to use rhetoric to get what you want - Camille A. Langston
BBC News | UK | Internet + English = Netglish A picture may be worth a thousand words. But economists have now come up with an exact value for the English language in the internet age. The language of Milton and Shakespeare - or more to the point the Spice Girls and Bill Gates - is now worth an estimated $7.815 billion. Nine out of ten computers connected to the internet are located in English-speaking countries and more than 80% of all home pages on the web are written in English. More than four fifths of all international organisations use English as either their main or one of their main operating languages. At the moment no other language comes anywhere near English. Word Power According to Oxford University Professor Jean Aitchison - one of the speakers at a conference organised by the RSA on language and the internet taking place in London on Friday - there is nothing about the language which makes it particularly useful as a world language. Experts already classify the use of English around the world in three ways: Possibilities
Nasıl oluyor da bazı insanlar çok sayıda dil konuşabiliyor? Bazılarına bir yabancı dili öğrenmek bile zor gelir. Oysa Berlin’de Çok Dilliler Buluşması’nda çok sayıda farklı dil konuşabilen 350 insan bir araya gelmişti. Kimi en az 10 dil biliyordu, hatta 30 dil bilen biri bile vardı aralarında. Beyin açısından ne kadar sıkıntılı bir iş olduğunu düşününce çoğu insanın dil öğrenmeyi neden zor bulduğunu anlayabiliriz. Farklı bellek sistemleri vardır ve yabancı bir dili iyi bir şekilde öğrenmek bunların hepsini kullanmayı gerektirir. Bunamayı geciktiriyor Telif hakkı BBC World Service Fakat bütün bu zorlukların getirisi de büyüktür. Fakat yakın zamana kadar birçok nörolog yabancı bir dili akıcı konuşmak için erken yaşta öğrenmek gerektiğini ileri sürüyordu. Gerçekten de Berlin’deki Çok Dilliler Buluşması’na katılanların çoğu konuştukları dilleri çocuklukta değil, ileri yaşlarda öğrenmiş. Peki nasıl oluyor da bu insanlar bu kadar dili öğreniyor? Bukalemun misali Taklit yeteneği DERGİ - Çok dil bilen insanlardan tavsiyeler - BBC Türkçe
DERGİ - Çok dil bilen insanlardan tavsiyeler - BBC Türkçe
There are two types of markup in Liquid: Output and Tag. Output markup (which may resolve to text) is surrounded by {{ matched pairs of curly brackets (ie, braces) }} Tag markup (which cannot resolve to text) is surrounded by {% matched pairs of curly brackets and percent signs %} Output An output statement is a set of double curly braces containing an expression; when the template is rendered, it gets replaced with the value of that expression. Here is a simple example of output: Hello {{name}} Hello {{}} Hello {{ 'tobi' }} Expressions and Variables Expressions are statements that have values. Liquid accepts the following kinds of expressions: Variables. Note that there is no way to write a literal array or hash as an expression; arrays and hashes must be passed into the template, or constructed obliquely with a tag or output statement. Advanced output: Filters Output markup can take filters, which modify the result of the output statement. Standard Filters Tags Comments Raw If / Else ==, ! Liquid for Designers · Shopify/liquid Wiki
GitHub - jdiamond/Nustache: Logic-less templates for .NET
Steve Lillis' Code Blog: DotLiquid Introduction A colleague recently introduced me to a very interesting open source library for content templating called DotLiquid. It's actually a .NET port of a system originally produced for Ruby, and that system originated from Shopify! This kind of legacy is good, because it (usually) means that an API has stood the test of time for being fast and easy to work with. Intrigued, I downloaded the source for DotLiquid and was pleased to find that not only is the provided API easy to understand and work with without knowing the underlying code, but the source itself has a very well structured Object Oriented architecture, too. Digging a bit deeper I found a few places that can potentially be improved for better performance. How important that performance gain will be really depends on how time critical your rendering of content is. Testing Performance: Never Guess You may notice that I run a warm up test first. The Test Template Initial Timings Early Analysis Going Forward That's it for now.
27 Great Resources on Using Portfolios for Language Learning and Literacy | Literacy, Languages and Leadership
European Language Portfolio (ELP) - Homepage
Language Portfolios

LinguaFolio® – NCSSFL
Storyboard That: The World's Best FREE Online Storyboard Creator
Language Arts

Language tools / patterns

Language analysis

Language arts playground

Functional languages

Reading/Language Arts

Learning / Language

Language history and linguistics

Learning Another Language