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An Example Programming by Contract is known under the name of Design by Contract™ first implemented by Eiffel, a programming language introduced by Bertrand Meyer1. The main principle of programming by contract is to actually add a program’s specification as expressions in the form of meta-data to certain elements in the source code. Let us take a look at the Rocket class below: import org.gcontracts.annotations.* @Invariant({ (started == true && speed > 0) || (started == false && speed == 0) })class Rocket { boolean started = false int speed = 0 @Requires({ ! Note that the code above is valid Groovy code. All annotations have in common that they make use of so-called closure annotations – special annotations which allow Groovy closures as attributes. The @Invariant annotation in this case states that a Rocket instance is either started and flies with some speed, or is not started and stands still. Contracts, contracts, everywhere… Let’s take class Rocket and its start method as an example. An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki
12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need 12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need Preface by Tim Ferriss I’ve written about how I learned to speak, read, and write Japanese, Mandarin, and Spanish. I’ve also covered my experiments with German, Indonesian, Arabic, Norwegian, Turkish, and perhaps a dozen others. There are only few language learners who dazzle me, and Benny Lewis is one of them. This definitive guest post by Benny will teach you: How to speak your target language today.How to reach fluency and exceed it within a few months.How to pass yourself off as a native speaker.And finally, how to tackle multiple languages to become a “polyglot”—all within a few years, perhaps as little as 1-2. It contains TONS of amazing resources I never even knew existed, including the best free apps and websites for becoming fluent in record time. This is a post you all requested, so I hope you enjoy it! Enter Benny You are either born with the language-learning gene, or you aren’t. I think you can stack the deck in your favor. So, let’s get started! Here’s what I suggest instead:
Languages

Lessonstream.org by Jamie Keddie
Nineteen Eighty-Four Nineteen Eighty-Four History and title[edit] A 1947 draft manuscript of the first page of Nineteen Eighty-Four, showing the editorial development. The Last Man in Europe was an early title for the novel but in a letter dated 22 October 1948 to his publisher Fredric Warburg, eight months before publication, Orwell wrote about hesitating between The Last Man in Europe and Nineteen Eighty-Four.[14] Warburg suggested changing the main title to a more commercial one.[15] Copyright status[edit] The novel will be in the public domain in the European Union and Russia in 2021 and in the United States in 2044.[21] It is already in the public domain in Canada;[22] South Africa,[23] Argentina[24] Australia,[25] and Oman.[26] Background[edit] The banner of the Party in the 1984 film adaptation of the book (I) the upper-class Inner Party, the elite ruling minority, who make up 2% of the population. As the government, the Party controls the population with four ministries: Plot[edit] Characters[edit] Principal characters[edit]
InThinking promotes and supports the development of high quality educational resources which incorporate cutting-edge ideas, encourage independent thinking, and help students to prepare effectively for exams. Subject Sites InThinking Subject Sites offer a comprehensive range of resources for new & experienced IBDP teachers. Each site - which is updated weekly - contains hundreds of ready-to-go classroom materials and masses of invaluable tips & advice on every aspect of teaching the course. Why InThinking Subject Sites? IB Diploma What people are saying about the sites [Show][Hide] Chemistry "A superb site. "This is a fabulous resource. English B "A great website. "This website is highly motivating from different points of view: the accesible language used, the variety of activities and resources, the fact that we as teachers feel part of it, the possibilty of reflecting and monitoring our daily practices." Physics "I like it a lot. "As an inexperienced teacher, this site helped me a lot. Teacher resources - InThinking Teacher resources - InThinking
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Language exchanges

Language exchange with a purpose | TLTalk.com
Nordic Languages

Blogginlägg: Språk i Norden Eleven kan ge exempel på nationella minoritetsspråk, föra enkla resonemang om språkliga varianter inom svenskan samt ge exempel på tydligt framträdande språkliga likheter och skillnader mellan svenskan och närliggande språk. Lgr 11 s.230 Vi har jobbat med nordiska språk i samband med att vi har jobbat med Norden i geografi. Vi lyssnade på olika språk, jämförde ord och letade likheter och skillnader. Minoritetsspråk De språk som är nationella minoritetsspråk i Sverige är finska, meänkieli, samiska, jiddissch, och romani. På språkrådets sida, som texten ovan kommer ifrån, kan man läsa mer om språken. Nordiska språk Kolla, jämför och lyssna på de nordiska språken genom att klicka på länken. När du lyssnar på Sahara och David kan du leta efter likheter och skillnader mellan språken. När vi sedan avslutade arbetet fick alla repetera de texer vi läst och lyssna igenom de olika språken igen. 1. 3. 4. 5. Blogginlägg: Språk i Norden
Grundskoleboken.se Nordiska språk Grundskoleboken.se Nordiska språk Norden består av länderna: Sverige, Norge, Finland, Danmark och Island. Till Danmark hör även ögruppen Färöarna och Grönland. Inom norden talar vi ett flertal språk som är besläktade med varandra, men också språk som inte alls har med varandra att göra. Man brukar tala om olika ”språkgrenar”. Början Språkgrenen med nordiska språk kan man säga börjar med vikingarna, eller åtminstone det nordiska språk som de norska och danska vikingarna talade. Norskan Sveriges svenska och Danmarks danska utvecklades ofta i kontakt med andra språk. Uppdelning av nynorska och bokmål i Norge Danskan Ofta tycker vi svenska att danskan är svår att förstå när den talas, men desto enklare att först i skriven form. Finskan och Finlandssvenskan Svenskan har en mängd dialekter som uppstått när många människor bott avskilda under en längre tid. Finskan är annorlunda och kommer från en språkstam som heter finsk-ugriskan. Finlandssvenskans utbredning i Finland. Andra minoritetsspråk Meänkieli är närbesläktat med finskan.
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A modern guide to getting started with Data Science and Python Python has an extremely rich and healthy ecosystem of data science tools. Unfortunately, to outsiders this ecosystem can look like a jungle (cue snake joke). In this blog post I will provide a step-by-step guide to venturing into this PyData jungle. What's wrong with the many lists of PyData packages out there already you might ask? The upside is that the few tools I will introduce already allow you to do most things a data scientist does in his day-to-day (i.e. data i/o, data munging, and data analysis). Installation¶ It has happened quite a few times that people came up to me and said "I heard Python is amazing for data science so I wanted to start learning it but spent two days installing Python and all the other modules!". Fortunately for you, the fine folks at Continuum have created the Anaconda Python distribution that installs most of the PyData stack for you, and the modules it doesn't provide out of the box can easily be installed via a GUI. IPython Notebook¶ A modern guide to getting started with Data Science and Python
How can I help my child to start talking? (Video) How can I help my child to start talking? (Video) Health visitor Sara Patience describes how you can help develop your child's language skills by talking and playing with her. Show transcript Hide transcript How can I help my child to start talking? Sara: “You want this one?
Why does my toddler love repetition? Why does my toddler love repetition? Paediatric speech and language therapist. It may test your patience when your toddler demands 'Row, row, row your boat' for the 10th time. But there's a good reason for her insistence. From around the age of two, you will notice your toddler repeating the same words and phrases constantly. Through repeating things, your toddler is able to take in new information each time. And she will love stories and nursery rhymes with repeated phrases, because she can join in. A small study has found that repetition of stories may help children to learn new words. After hearing her favourite book many times, your toddler may even remember it well enough to add the endings to some of the sentences. Repetition is also comforting for your toddler. As your toddler learns more about the world around her, she may at times feel overwhelmed by all the new information she's taking in. Encourage your toddler's language skills by making time every day to read with her. Last reviewed: November 2012
What do babies need in order to learn and thrive? One thing they need is conversation — responsive, back-and-forth communication with their parents and caregivers. This interactive engagement is like food for their developing brains, nurturing language acquisition, early literacy, school readiness, and social and emotional well-being. A dispiriting number of children don’t get that kind of brain-fueling communication, research suggests. In a commentary published today in the journal JAMA Pediatrics, Rowe joins forces with Boston Medical Center pediatrician Barry Zuckerman to offer specific guidance to pediatricians and parents about just what kind of talk is most important, at what ages and stages in a child’s growth. Quality Talk in the Early Years “Parents should not get the wrong message and be stressed out about talking all the time or meeting a set number of words per day,” Rowe and Zuckerman note. Here’s what that looks like at different ages. Additional Resources Let's Talk Let's Talk
Language development

BBC Learning English - The Sounds of English / Short Vowels - Programme 7
Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Details Created: Wednesday, 09 November 2011 08:53 Updated on Friday, 10 June 2016 13:54 Typical expressive language development "Brown's Stages" were identified by Roger Brown 1925-1997 (obituary) and described in his classic book (Brown,1973). A structural analysis does not include a measure of a child's development in the area of the clarity of pronunciation of speech sounds. Morphology In Linguistics, morphology is the branch of grammar devoted to the study of the structure or forms of words, primarily through the use of the morpheme construct. Syntax In Linguistics, syntax is a traditional term for the study the rules governing the combination of words to form sentences. Morpheme A morpheme is a unit of meaning. happy 'Happy’ is ONE WORD, it has TWO SYLLABLES (ha-ppy), and because it contains only one unit of meaning it is ONE MORPHEME. Stage I Sentence Types Brown's Stage I Brown's Stages ("Brown's Morphemes") I to IV Reference Links
To browse for materials to play: Use the left menu to navigate through the CHILDES corpora. Click once on the folder you want to explore, and it will expand to show any available subfolders and transcripts. Once you have found the transcript you want to review, click its filename. Next to each transcript name is an icon displaying whether the file has linked audio , video , or no media Controlling playback: For transcripts that are linked to media, you can control playback in three ways: Use the controls that display below the media to play, pause, and rewind/fast forward. Continuous playback: By default, media playback is continuous. To run CLAN commands: CLAN commands may be entered in the text box below Command line: (on left, below the directory listing), and run entirely in the browser. Hiding dependent tiers: Codes, comments, events, and descriptions of interest to the researcher are often typed below the main tier. Eng-UK/ | CHILDES Transcript Browser
Facebook now has approximately 1.6 billion users, which equates to about one quarter of the world’s population. This number becomes even more astonishing when you consider that 3.3 billion of the world’s 7.2 billion people are connected to the internet — Facebook has registered over half the world’s connected population. The other internet giant, Google, handles around 4 billion search queries a day. Companies that operate on the breathtaking scale of Google and Facebook address and satisfy core fundamental human needs; namely, access to information and social interaction. What happens, though, when a web company focuses not on need, but on aspiration? In 2007, the language experts at Babbel set out to make language learning easy, effective, and accessible to everyone. So how’s it working out? The numbers speak for themselves: over 1,000,000 people choose to learn a language with Babbel, and that number continues to grow. 1. 2. App-based learning carries a few inherent advantages. 3. babbel
Σε όποια περιοχή της Ελλάδας και αν μένετε, μπορείτε να παρακολουθήσετε τα ταχύρυθμα τμήματα Γαλλικών για Ενήλικες που προσφέρει η Ευρωδιάσταση μέσω H/Y (real time). Πραγματική τάξη σε πραγματικό χρόνο! Πάνω από 1.200 επιτυχόντες στις εξετάσεις για τα πτυχία Γαλλικών DELF και DALF. DELF B2 σε 11 μήνες αρχίζοντας από το μηδέν! Πολυπληθής ομάδα καθηγητών υψηλού επιπέδου, με εξειδίκευση στα ταχύρυθμα μαθήματα Γαλλικών για Ενήλικες, πολύχρονη διδακτική πείρα και συνεχείς μαζικές επιτυχίες στις εξετάσεις. Μοναδική προσφορά αποκλειστικά για online μαθήματα (αφορά τα νέα τμήματα Γαλλικών Φεβρουαρίου 2017): 60% έκπτωση επί των αρχικών τιμών των προγραμμάτων και δώρο όλα τα βιβλία! Πανελλαδικά τηλέφωνα επικοινωνίας: 210 96.200.43, 210 33.01.300, 210 41.000.85. Εάν επιθυμείτε να επικοινωνήσουμε εμείς μαζί σας για να σας ενημερώσουμε, μπορείτε να συμπληρώσετε μία Φόρμα Επικοινωνίας εδώ. Εξετάσεις Γαλλικών DELF B2 - Αναλυτικές πληροφορίες για τη διαδικασία και περιεχόμενο των εξετάσεων Γαλλικών DELF B2. Online μαθήματα Γαλλικών: μαθήματα Γαλλικών με e-learning από την Ευρωδιάσταση. Νέα ταχύρυθμα τμήματα Φεβρουαρίου 2017. - Ευρωδιάσταση
Διαδραστικά Σχολικά Βιβλία | Γαλλικά (Α Γυμνασίου) ΦΩΤΟΔΕΝΤΡΟεθνικός συσσωρευτής εκπαιδευτικού περιεχομένου e-meΨηφιακή ΕκπαιδευτικήΠΛΑΤΦΟΡΜΑ Μεταφορά στην ιστοσελίδα Ψηφιακό Σχολείο Μεταφορά στην αρχική σελίδα επικοινωνία Γαλλικα (Α Γυμνασιου) Γαλλικα Α Γυμνασιου ψηφιακοί πόροι βιβλίων περιγραφή και στόχοι βιβλία μαθητή μη εμπλουτισμένα html διαδραστικό βιβλίο μαθητή εμπλουτισμένο html διδακτικό πακέτο βιβλία pdf Δείτε περισσότερα για τις υπηρεσίες του Ψηφιακού Σχολείου Το έργο «Ψηφιακή Εκπαιδευτική Πλατφόρμα, Διαδραστικά Βιβλία και Αποθετήριο Μαθησιακών Αντικειμένων» συγχρηματοδοτείται από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (ΕΚΤ) και το Ελληνικό Δημόσιο στο πλαίσιο του ΕΠ «Εκπαίδευση και Δια Βίου Μάθηση» του ΕΣΠΑ 2007-2013 και υλοποιείται από το ΙΤΥΕ «ΔΙΟΦΑΝΤΟΣ».
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