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An Example Programming by Contract is known under the name of Design by Contract™ first implemented by Eiffel, a programming language introduced by Bertrand Meyer1. The main principle of programming by contract is to actually add a program’s specification as expressions in the form of meta-data to certain elements in the source code. Let us take a look at the Rocket class below: import org.gcontracts.annotations.* @Invariant({ (started == true && speed > 0) || (started == false && speed == 0) })class Rocket { boolean started = false int speed = 0 @Requires({ ! Note that the code above is valid Groovy code. All annotations have in common that they make use of so-called closure annotations – special annotations which allow Groovy closures as attributes. The @Invariant annotation in this case states that a Rocket instance is either started and flies with some speed, or is not started and stands still. Contracts, contracts, everywhere… Let’s take class Rocket and its start method as an example. An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki
12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need 12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need Preface by Tim Ferriss I’ve written about how I learned to speak, read, and write Japanese, Mandarin, and Spanish. I’ve also covered my experiments with German, Indonesian, Arabic, Norwegian, Turkish, and perhaps a dozen others. There are only few language learners who dazzle me, and Benny Lewis is one of them. This definitive guest post by Benny will teach you: How to speak your target language today.How to reach fluency and exceed it within a few months.How to pass yourself off as a native speaker.And finally, how to tackle multiple languages to become a “polyglot”—all within a few years, perhaps as little as 1-2. It contains TONS of amazing resources I never even knew existed, including the best free apps and websites for becoming fluent in record time. This is a post you all requested, so I hope you enjoy it! Enter Benny You are either born with the language-learning gene, or you aren’t. I think you can stack the deck in your favor. So, let’s get started! Here’s what I suggest instead:
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ESL activities - resources for English teachers | ELTbase
English Language

(B) = Beginner; (I) = Intermediate; (A) = Advanced VERB TENSES (Tests/Quizzes): Commands (Imperative) 1 (B/I)Commands (Imperative) 2 (B/I)Commands (Imperative) 3 (B/I)The Present Continuous 1 (B)NEWSimple Past/Past Continuous? 1 (A)Simple Past/Past Continuous? SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 1 (B)SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 2 (B)TO BE (Present tense) 1 (B)TO BE (Present tense) 2 (B)NEWTO BE (Present tense) 3 (negative sentences) (B)NEWTO HAVE (Present tense) 1 (B)TO HAVE (Present tense) 2 (B)NEWTO BE or TO HAVE? EXERCISES TO IMPROVE YOUR ENGLISH WRITING SKILLS (ADVANCED) Whether you're a native speaker of English or an advanced ESL student, these practice tests will help you to recognize and eliminate common grammar errors. English punctuation: Comma or semicolon? COUNTABLE (COUNT) or UNCOUNTABLE (NONCOUNT) NOUNS: THERE IS or THERE ARE? USED TO, BE USED TO, WOULD 1 (B/I)NEWWOULD YOU LIKE or DO YOU LIKE? English Grammar Tests for ESL Students - English Grammar Practice Quizzes English Grammar Tests for ESL Students - English Grammar Practice Quizzes
C1 level English language practice tests Exam English ✓ Free Practice Tests for learners of English Practice tests at C1 level The following practice tests are at C1 level: CAE About CAE | Reading 1 | Reading 2 | Reading 3 | Reading 4 | Listening 1 | Listening 2 | Listening 3 | Listening 4 | Listening | Use of English 1 | Use of English 2 | Use of English 3 | Use of English 4 | Use of English 5 BEC Higher BEC Higher: Reading part 1 | Reading part 2 PTE General Level 4 Level 4 listening | Level 4 reading | The following are multi-level exams that encompass C1 level: TOEFL Reading: Reading 1| Reading part 1 | Reading part 2 | Reading part 3 Listening: Lecture 1 | Lecture 2 | Lecture 3 | Lecture 4 | Conversation 1 | Conversation 2 | Conversation 3 Vocab & Structure: Vocabulary test | Structure test 1 | Structure test 2 | Structure test 3 | Structure test 4 TOEFL Tips | TOEFL Junior | About TOEFL PTE Academic PTE Academic: listening test 1 | listening test 2 | listening test 3 2014 © Exam English Ltd. C1 level English language practice tests
This is a guest post by Albert Brown Why translation services needed? In general perception, global economy doesn’t come to our mind when we consider interpretation services. We normally think of it as somebody having a thorough knowledge of the root and destination languages, who helps others to understand some different languages and let the communication process flow between two or more people. Issue on the translation of Economics In today’s world of information society and globalization, when global economy mainly depends on the distribution and production process along with communication and information, language services play a key role. Why is translation so important in the global economy? Translation applications act like important resources for both the translators and normal people and the sale and design of these apps and various web-paced platforms are a flourishing segment in the language industry. Advice on language service How translation improves the economy Author Bio: Translation Services - How it helps to improve Today's Global Economy? Translation Services - How it helps to improve Today's Global Economy?
The art of simultaneous interpretation is used during United Nations gatherings, presidential speeches, and large international conferences. It is the process in which an interpreter interprets what a presenter is saying at the same time as they are speaking so that listeners receive the interpretation without delay. If the interpreter pauses, it is usually no more than a couple of words behind the speaker, and it is done in order to give the interpreter time to both process the speech and provide the interpretation. Simultaneous interpretation is demanding. It is doubtlessly one of the most difficult language skills to learn. correctly in such a fast-paced environment. Since it is such a mentally demanding profession, lengthy meetings and technical material will cause a single interpreter to tire and the quality of the interpretation to suffer. Simultaneous interpretation may be challenging, but it isn’t impossible. Do you currently work as a simultaneous interpreter? Simultaneous Interpretation Series Part 1 of 6: Introduction to Simultaneous Interpretation Simultaneous Interpretation Series Part 1 of 6: Introduction to Simultaneous Interpretation
Simultaneous Interpretation Series Part 2 of 6: Selecting a Quality Simultaneous Interpreter Simultaneous Interpreter Thaïs Maria Lips Welcome to part two of our simultaneous interpretation series! Now that you’re familiar with what simultaneous interpreters do, here are a few points to keep in mind the next time you need one. If you need a refresher on the basics of simultaneous interpretation, check out last week’s blog post. Simultaneous interpretation is one of the most time-consuming and challenging language services. That being the case, finding a linguist who can effectively provide simultaneous interpretation is both challenging and incredibly important. Here are some of the steps we at Translation Excellence take when vetting prospective simultaneous interpreters for assignments: Referrals: Referrals are a great way to find quality simultaneous interpreters. Do you have any other suggestions for choosing a simultaneous interpreter? Simultaneous Interpretation Series Part 2 of 6: Selecting a Quality Simultaneous Interpreter
How can I help my child to start talking? (Video) How can I help my child to start talking? (Video) Health visitor Sara Patience describes how you can help develop your child's language skills by talking and playing with her. Show transcript Hide transcript How can I help my child to start talking? Sara: “You want this one?
Why does my toddler love repetition? Why does my toddler love repetition? Paediatric speech and language therapist. It may test your patience when your toddler demands 'Row, row, row your boat' for the 10th time. But there's a good reason for her insistence. From around the age of two, you will notice your toddler repeating the same words and phrases constantly. Through repeating things, your toddler is able to take in new information each time. And she will love stories and nursery rhymes with repeated phrases, because she can join in. A small study has found that repetition of stories may help children to learn new words. After hearing her favourite book many times, your toddler may even remember it well enough to add the endings to some of the sentences. Repetition is also comforting for your toddler. As your toddler learns more about the world around her, she may at times feel overwhelmed by all the new information she's taking in. Encourage your toddler's language skills by making time every day to read with her. Last reviewed: November 2012
What do babies need in order to learn and thrive? One thing they need is conversation — responsive, back-and-forth communication with their parents and caregivers. This interactive engagement is like food for their developing brains, nurturing language acquisition, early literacy, school readiness, and social and emotional well-being. A dispiriting number of children don’t get that kind of brain-fueling communication, research suggests. In a commentary published today in the journal JAMA Pediatrics, Rowe joins forces with Boston Medical Center pediatrician Barry Zuckerman to offer specific guidance to pediatricians and parents about just what kind of talk is most important, at what ages and stages in a child’s growth. Quality Talk in the Early Years “Parents should not get the wrong message and be stressed out about talking all the time or meeting a set number of words per day,” Rowe and Zuckerman note. Here’s what that looks like at different ages. Additional Resources Let's Talk Let's Talk
Language development

BBC Learning English - The Sounds of English / Short Vowels - Programme 7
Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Details Created: Wednesday, 09 November 2011 08:53 Updated on Friday, 10 June 2016 13:54 Typical expressive language development "Brown's Stages" were identified by Roger Brown 1925-1997 (obituary) and described in his classic book (Brown,1973). A structural analysis does not include a measure of a child's development in the area of the clarity of pronunciation of speech sounds. Morphology In Linguistics, morphology is the branch of grammar devoted to the study of the structure or forms of words, primarily through the use of the morpheme construct. Syntax In Linguistics, syntax is a traditional term for the study the rules governing the combination of words to form sentences. Morpheme A morpheme is a unit of meaning. happy 'Happy’ is ONE WORD, it has TWO SYLLABLES (ha-ppy), and because it contains only one unit of meaning it is ONE MORPHEME. Stage I Sentence Types Brown's Stage I Brown's Stages ("Brown's Morphemes") I to IV Reference Links
To browse for materials to play: Use the left menu to navigate through the CHILDES corpora. Click once on the folder you want to explore, and it will expand to show any available subfolders and transcripts. Once you have found the transcript you want to review, click its filename. Next to each transcript name is an icon displaying whether the file has linked audio , video , or no media Controlling playback: For transcripts that are linked to media, you can control playback in three ways: Use the controls that display below the media to play, pause, and rewind/fast forward. Continuous playback: By default, media playback is continuous. To run CLAN commands: CLAN commands may be entered in the text box below Command line: (on left, below the directory listing), and run entirely in the browser. Hiding dependent tiers: Codes, comments, events, and descriptions of interest to the researcher are often typed below the main tier. Eng-UK/ | CHILDES Transcript Browser
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. The preparation for the charter was undertaken by the predecessor to the current Congress of Local and Regional Authorities, the Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe because involvement of local and regional government was essential. The actual charter was written in the Parliamentary Assembly based on the Congress' Recommendations. Some states, such as Ukraine and Sweden, have tied the status of minority language to the recognized national minorities, which are defined by ethnic, cultural and/or religious criteria, thereby circumventing the Charter's notion of linguistic minority. The charter provides a large number of different actions state parties can take to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages. European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages - Wikipedia
List of territorial entities where German is an official language - Wikipedia Legal statuses of German in Europe: "German Sprachraum": German is (co-)official language and first language of the majority of the population German is a co-official language, but not the first language of the majority of the population German (or a German dialect) is a legally recognized minority language (Squares: Geographic distribution too dispersed/small for map scale) Approximate distribution of native German speakers (assuming a rounded total of 95 million) worldwide. Germany (78.3%) Austria (8.4%) Switzerland (5.6%) Italy (0.4%) Other (7.3%) The following is a list of the territorial entities where German is an official language. German as an official language[edit] German is the official language of six countries, all of which lie in central Europe. Dependent entities[edit] German, or one of its dialects, is a co-official language in several dependent entities. In the two Slovak villages of Krahule/Blaufuss and Other legal statuses[edit] Although in The constitution of Argentina, Australia,
Italian language - Wikipedia This article is about the standardized Italian language. For other Italian languages originating or spoken in Italy, see Languages of Italy. Italian ( italiano [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. It is the second-closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary after Sardinian.[7][8] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and one of the working languages of the Council of Europe. History[edit] Origins[edit] Renaissance[edit] Modern era[edit] Contemporary times[edit] Classification[edit] Sub Note:[20] Europe[edit] Africa[edit]
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