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How Language Works (Edition 3.0): Table of Contents
Programming Languages

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An Example Programming by Contract is known under the name of Design by Contract™ first implemented by Eiffel, a programming language introduced by Bertrand Meyer1. The main principle of programming by contract is to actually add a program’s specification as expressions in the form of meta-data to certain elements in the source code. Let us take a look at the Rocket class below: import org.gcontracts.annotations.* @Invariant({ (started == true && speed > 0) || (started == false && speed == 0) })class Rocket { boolean started = false int speed = 0 @Requires({ ! Note that the code above is valid Groovy code. All annotations have in common that they make use of so-called closure annotations – special annotations which allow Groovy closures as attributes. The @Invariant annotation in this case states that a Rocket instance is either started and flies with some speed, or is not started and stands still. Contracts, contracts, everywhere… Let’s take class Rocket and its start method as an example. An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki
12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need 12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need Preface by Tim Ferriss I’ve written about how I learned to speak, read, and write Japanese, Mandarin, and Spanish. I’ve also covered my experiments with German, Indonesian, Arabic, Norwegian, Turkish, and perhaps a dozen others. There are only few language learners who dazzle me, and Benny Lewis is one of them. This definitive guest post by Benny will teach you: How to speak your target language today.How to reach fluency and exceed it within a few months.How to pass yourself off as a native speaker.And finally, how to tackle multiple languages to become a “polyglot”—all within a few years, perhaps as little as 1-2. It contains TONS of amazing resources I never even knew existed, including the best free apps and websites for becoming fluent in record time. This is a post you all requested, so I hope you enjoy it! Enter Benny You are either born with the language-learning gene, or you aren’t. I think you can stack the deck in your favor. So, let’s get started! Here’s what I suggest instead:
German Language

Englisch - Deutsch Wörterbuch - leo.org: Startseite Schon seit einiger Zeit arbeiten wir an einer neuen Version der Wörterbuchseite und sind jetzt soweit, dass wir sie Ihnen vorstellen möchten - natürlich verbunden mit der Bitte um konstruktive Kritik und Fehlermeldungen. Einige Ziele der Umgestaltung: Visuell einheitlicheres ErscheinungsbildProminentere Anzeige der Zusatzinformationen wie Aussprache, Flexionstabellen, Beispiele etc.Prominentere Verweise auf Forum, Vokabeltrainer und Sprachkurse (nur da, wo es uns auch sinnvoll erscheint)Aktualisierung und Vereinfachung der internen Strukturen Gleichzeitig war es uns wichtig, dass die Übersetzungsergebnisse nach wie vor als prominentes und vmtl. häufig wichtigstes Element auf der Seite nicht unter den Änderungen leiden. Wir würden uns sehr freuen, wenn Sie die neue Seite ein wenig testen möchten und uns mögliche Probleme oder Anregungen per E-Mail (dict@leo.org) oder im Forum zukommen lassen Zur neuen Version Ihr LEO-Team Englisch - Deutsch Wörterbuch - leo.org: Startseite
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German compound words – Animal Names Funny and bizarre German animal names The German language is famous for some really long nouns (Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaftskapitän comes to mind). This is because German nouns, verbs, prepositions and adjectives are like lego bricks; you can stick them together in almost any way to create new words that encapsulate new concepts. This gives the language a special ability to name just about anything. You could call it the German language’s lego brick-like quality, or Legosteineigenschaft (see what I just did there?). But why does German rely on such an elaborate process to name things as simple as squirrels? The Uncanny X-Tiere Comics are full of heroes with names like super, wonder, iron, ultra, bat or cat followed by -man, -woman, -girl or -boy. Sometimes suffixes get more specific than -tier, but still tend to describe the wrong animal: No, I’m Pretty Sure That’s A Pig Swine seem to be a popular yardstick in German animal taxonomy. Just Plain Weird Eichhörnchen: alternate names: German compound words – Animal Names
Why languages?

The 5 Golden Secrets Of Hyper-Fast Language Learning (Infographic)
Språklig rikedom och språkliga kontraster – ett tack till Jason och Jonas | Mias klassrum Språklig rikedom och språkliga kontraster – ett tack till Jason och Jonas | Mias klassrum Har du funderat på hur många som egentligen arbetar med språk? Nu tänker jag inte främst på språklärare, lingvistikforskare och översättare. Jag tänker på alla som baserar sitt arbete på språk i någon form. Jag tänker på journalister, på författare, på skribenter, på debattörer. Det svenska språket har skapats av dess användare. När jag tänker på vilka i min generation som påverkar det svenska språket mest faller tankarna direkt på två personer. Det som kännetecknar Jason och Jonas är inte bara att de är unga och arbetar med språk. När man arbetar med flera språk ser man kontraster. Jag är själv uppvuxen som enspråkig, uppvuxen i Sverige med svenska föräldrar. Jag och min kollega har tillsammans vänt och vridit på många ord och talesätt under året. Jag vill tro att det är just den här språkliga rikedomen som för Jason och Jonas så framgångsrika i sitt språkbrukande. Majoriteten av svenskarna skulle idag påstå att de är bra på engelska. I språkundervisning blir inte ett plus ett två.
What are The Hardest Languages to Learn? | YouthProjects - Your chance of better life
IT IS COMMON SENSE - Your group foreign-language learning experience puts you in a position to observe, study and imitate groups of people communicating and having social interaction with each other. Through digital video, you can observe their skin color, physical features, clothing, gestures, body proximity, how they work with things around them, conversational discourse habits, accents, speech rhythm and speed., etc. All of these intensify your exposure and give you some confidence of adopting socially appropriate behavior as you begin, enter, or end your own conversations in the language, or use social media. As you repeatedly observe and imitate, you develop the understanding, process memory, sensitivity, and tolerance necessary for real international-skills success. While its is difficult to comparatively measure this, or to let collected data paint a convincing picture, I am beginning to collect observations and studies in articles. VALUE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING VALUE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING
Language and Thought
Language

Experts said the verdict could open the floodgates to thousands of similar cases. The ruling came after animal rights campaigners filed a habeas corpus petition – a document more typically used to challenge the legality of a person’s detention or imprisonment – on behalf of the Sumatran orangutan, who was born at a German zoo and was transferred to Buenos Aires two decades ago. The outcome hinged on whether Sandra should be treated as a "thing" or a "person", with the Association of Officials and Lawyers for Animal Rights (Afada) arguing that she should not be treated as an object because of her intelligence and complex ways of thinking. The court agreed that Sandra deserved the basic rights of a "non-human person". Loading gallery Critically endangered species 1 of 10 Orangutans are part of the family Hominidae – or great ape – along with gorillas, chimpanzees and humans. Sandra will be transferred to a sanctuary in Brazil unless the zoo appeals within the next 10 days. Orangutan inside Argentina zoo granted 'non-human person rights' in landmark ruling - Americas Orangutan inside Argentina zoo granted 'non-human person rights' in landmark ruling - Americas
To judge a risk more clearly, it may help to consider it in a foreign language. A series of experiments on more than 300 people from the U.S. and Korea found that thinking in a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and benefits are perceived. “Would you make the same decisions in a foreign language as you would in your native tongue?” asked psychologists led by Boaz Keysar of the University of Chicago in an April 18 Psychological Science study. “It may be intuitive that people would make the same choices regardless of the language they are using, or that the difficulty of using a foreign language would make decisions less systematic. Psychologists say human reasoning is shaped by two distinct modes of thought: one that’s systematic, analytical and cognition-intensive, and another that’s fast, unconscious and emotionally charged. 'Would you make the same decisions in a foreign language?' Click to Open Overlay Gallery Go Back to Top. Thinking in a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational | Science Thinking in a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational | Science
Mysteries of Vernacular
This is a great story. But really, I made it sound way more simple than it really is. You probably have some questions already, if you’re a critical sort of person. If the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Friesians all conquered areas of Celtic Britain, why is it that England is called England (which comes from Angle-land, the Land of the Angles) and not Saxonland or Juteland? If Old English has not been spoken since before the twelfth century, how do we know what it sounded like? When and how did Old English become the modern language that we speak today? Clearly, there is way more to it. The British Library has many great resources connected with the evolution of the English language and with the earliest complete work of literature in old English, the epic poem Beowulf. This link will bring you to an interactive timeline of the English language starting in the year 1000: How did English evolve? - Kate Gardoqui How did English evolve? - Kate Gardoqui
English Language

George Orwell: Politics and the English Language Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language — so the argument runs — must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad — I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen — but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer. 1. 2. 3. 4. George Orwell: Politics and the English Language
Language Acquisition

Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Details Created: Wednesday, 09 November 2011 08:53 Updated on Friday, 10 June 2016 13:54 Typical expressive language development "Brown's Stages" were identified by Roger Brown 1925-1997 (obituary) and described in his classic book (Brown,1973). A structural analysis does not include a measure of a child's development in the area of the clarity of pronunciation of speech sounds. Morphology In Linguistics, morphology is the branch of grammar devoted to the study of the structure or forms of words, primarily through the use of the morpheme construct. Syntax In Linguistics, syntax is a traditional term for the study the rules governing the combination of words to form sentences. Morpheme A morpheme is a unit of meaning. happy 'Happy’ is ONE WORD, it has TWO SYLLABLES (ha-ppy), and because it contains only one unit of meaning it is ONE MORPHEME. Stage I Sentence Types Brown's Stage I Brown's Stages ("Brown's Morphemes") I to IV Reference Links
To browse for materials to play: Use the left menu to navigate through the CHILDES corpora. Click once on the folder you want to explore, and it will expand to show any available subfolders and transcripts. Once you have found the transcript you want to review, click its filename. Next to each transcript name is an icon displaying whether the file has linked audio , video , or no media Controlling playback: For transcripts that are linked to media, you can control playback in three ways: Use the controls that display below the media to play, pause, and rewind/fast forward. Continuous playback: By default, media playback is continuous. To run CLAN commands: CLAN commands may be entered in the text box below Command line: (on left, below the directory listing), and run entirely in the browser. Hiding dependent tiers: Codes, comments, events, and descriptions of interest to the researcher are often typed below the main tier. Eng-UK/ | CHILDES Transcript Browser
qr_generator Note: each of the QR codes is a text file. There is no need for the mobile devices to connect to the internet to decode them. The correct answers for this quiz can be found here. InstructionsAcquisition Grammar Your job is to find the QR codes which your teacher has put on display around the area. Acquisition Grammar: QR Challenge Question 1 (of 5) Question 2 (of 5) Question 3 (of 5) Question 4 (of 5) Question 5 (of 5)
BODY LANGUAGE

Let me start with a question: How do you know if a person is lying? If you’re like most people, your first response will be something like “Liars don’t make eye contact.” In a survey of 2,520 adults in sixty-three countries, 70 percent of respondents gave that answer. When we are being inauthentic — projecting a false emotion or covering a real one — our nonverbal and verbal behaviors begin to misalign. This idea is not exactly new. Simply put, lying — or being inauthentic — is hard work. When people lie, they are juggling multiple narratives: what they know to be true, what they want to be true, what they are presenting as true, and all the emotions that go along with each — fear, anger, guilt, hope. Simply put, lying — or being inauthentic — is hard work. Lying and leaking go hand in hand. It turns out that we are not much better than chance at accurately detecting lies, although most of us think we excel at it. All participants watched a videotape of ten strangers speaking. This is how our bodies betray us in a lie
Aristotle, the student of Plato, taught first in Plato’s Academy and then tutored Alexander the Great, and finally established his Athenian philosophical school the Lyceum. The Lyceum is an amazing place to visit. Watch this video to learn more about the its remains here. In the fourth century BC, Aristotle compiled several of his lectures, two of which he wrote when he taught in Plato’s Academy and two later when teaching in his Lyceum, into the treatise, Rhetoric, which he used as a text. His teaching method differed from others; Aristotle was a peripatetic lecturer, which means he walked around as he spoke with his students instead of standing in the front of a room. Aristotle was not born in Athens and was not an orator like the sophists, and one of the most famous orators of the age, Cicero, were. On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse (1991), translated by George Kennedy, is the authoritative text of Aristotle’s treatise. How to use rhetoric to get what you want - Camille A. Langston
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