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Programming Languages

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An Example Programming by Contract is known under the name of Design by Contract™ first implemented by Eiffel, a programming language introduced by Bertrand Meyer1. The main principle of programming by contract is to actually add a program’s specification as expressions in the form of meta-data to certain elements in the source code. Let us take a look at the Rocket class below: import org.gcontracts.annotations.* @Invariant({ (started == true && speed > 0) || (started == false && speed == 0) })class Rocket { boolean started = false int speed = 0 @Requires({ ! Note that the code above is valid Groovy code. All annotations have in common that they make use of so-called closure annotations – special annotations which allow Groovy closures as attributes. The @Invariant annotation in this case states that a Rocket instance is either started and flies with some speed, or is not started and stands still. Contracts, contracts, everywhere… Let’s take class Rocket and its start method as an example. An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki An Introduction to Programming by Contract · andresteingress/gcontracts Wiki
12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need 12 Rules for Learning Foreign Languages in Record Time — The Only Post You’ll Ever Need Preface by Tim Ferriss I’ve written about how I learned to speak, read, and write Japanese, Mandarin, and Spanish. I’ve also covered my experiments with German, Indonesian, Arabic, Norwegian, Turkish, and perhaps a dozen others. There are only few language learners who dazzle me, and Benny Lewis is one of them. This definitive guest post by Benny will teach you: How to speak your target language today.How to reach fluency and exceed it within a few months.How to pass yourself off as a native speaker.And finally, how to tackle multiple languages to become a “polyglot”—all within a few years, perhaps as little as 1-2. It contains TONS of amazing resources I never even knew existed, including the best free apps and websites for becoming fluent in record time. This is a post you all requested, so I hope you enjoy it! Enter Benny You are either born with the language-learning gene, or you aren’t. I think you can stack the deck in your favor. So, let’s get started! Here’s what I suggest instead:
Jargon Jargon, technical terminology, or term of art[1] refer to the specialized vocabulary or characteristic idiom of a special activity, field of knowledge, or group.[2][3] An industry term is a type of technical terminology that has a particular meaning within a specific industry. The philosopher Étienne Bonnot de Condillac observed in 1782 that "every science requires a special language because every science has its own ideas." As a rationalist member of the Enlightenment he continued, "It seems that one ought to begin by composing this language, but people begin by speaking and writing, and the language remains to be composed. In other words, the term covers the language used by people who work in a particular area or who have a common interest. Industry term[edit] An industry term is a type of technical terminology that has a particular meaning within a specific industry. Accessibility issues[edit] Etymology[edit] The word comes from Old French jargon meaning "chatter of birds".[6] Jargon
Linguistics Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, linguistics, psychology, computer science, communication research, anthropology, and sociology. Domain[edit] History[edit] The tradition of applied linguistics established itself in part as a response to the narrowing of focus in linguistics with the advent in the late 1950s of generative linguistics, and has always maintained a socially accountable role, demonstrated by its central interest in language problems.[1] Although the field of applied linguistics started from Europe and the United States, the field rapidly flourished in the international context. Applied linguistics first concerned itself with principles and practices on the basis of linguistics. United States United Kingdom The British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) was established in 1967. Japan Linguistics
Feast Your Eyes on This Beautiful Linguistic Family Tree | Mental Floss Feast Your Eyes on This Beautiful Linguistic Family Tree | Mental Floss 2873 260ShareNew When linguists talk about the historical relationship between languages, they use a tree metaphor. An ancient source (say, Indo-European) has various branches (e.g., Romance, Germanic), which themselves have branches (West Germanic, North Germanic), which feed into specific languages (Swedish, Danish, Norwegian). Also worth checking out is the page before the tree, where she gives a comparison chart of words in the Nordic languages, and illustrates what an outlier Finnish is with the concept of “meow.” Read Stand Still.
25 Acts of Body Language to Avoid 25 Acts of Body Language to Avoid Our body language exhibits far more information about how we feel than it is possible to articulate verbally. All of the physical gestures we make are subconsciously interpreted by others. This can work for or against us depending on the kind of body language we use. Some gestures project a very positive message, while others do nothing but set a negative tone. Most people are totally oblivious to their own body language, so the discipline of controlling these gestures can be quite challenging. Most of them are reflexive in nature, automatically matching up to what our minds are thinking at any given moment. Nevertheless, with the right information and a little practice, we can train ourselves to overcome most of our negative body language habits. Practice avoiding these 25 negative gestures: “ I speak two languages, Body and English. ” — Mae West Holding Objects in Front of Your Body – a coffee cup, notebook, hand bag, etc. Want to know powerful, dominant, confident body language postures?
Body language

Are You Making a Good First Impression? Yahoo editors have selected this article as a favorite of 2013. It first ran on Yahoo Shine on Feb. 6 and was one of the most popular stories of the year. The story breaks down how to make a good first impression in five easy steps - from body-language tips to wardrobe suggestions. Five surprising ways people judge you when they first meet youWhen you meet someone for the first time or simply pass a stranger on the street, it's human nature to make assumptions about them: He's conceited and lazy, she's rich and friendly, that little girl is a huge brat. "When it comes to appearance, how you put yourself together matters more than being conventionally pretty," says Brandy Mychals, author of How to Read a Client from Across the Room (McGraw-Hill, 2012). Some of the ways others come to those opinions aren't what you may expect. 1. RELATED: Hello Gorgeous! 2. 3. 5. by Jené Luciani Are You Making a Good First Impression?
A Gadget For Teaching People To Master Body Language Who is really confident about their posture and mannerisms? Beauty queens and the intoxicated. The rest of us trudge through life hoping we aren’t standing like we were in that one picture. Ugh, don’t be nice about it. You know the one. RISR is a concept designed by Ludwig Zeller and Kjen Wilkens as part of a government-funded project at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. “While having spoken to colleagues and friends it became clear, that almost everybody seems to want to improve their appearance and that hardly anybody seems to be really confident about themselves in front of other people,” Zeller tells Co.Design. But where RISR ups the ante from a simple posture suit is in its front-facing 3-D IR camera, a sort of Kinect that you wear, aimed at the world around you to analyze the body language of others in real time. Of course, there are other possibilities here, too. I’m going with a big “yes” on that one. Read more here. [Hat tip: Technabob] A Gadget For Teaching People To Master Body Language
Functional languages

I’ve written this brief tutorial on haskell’s State monad to help bridge some of the elusive gaps that I encountered in other explanations I’ve read, and to try to cut through all the sticky abstraction. This is written for someone who has a good understanding of the Maybe and List monads, but has gotten stuck trying to understand State. I hope it’s helpful! The Data Declaration: To understand a monad you look at it’s datatype and then at the definition for bind (>>=). Most monad tutorials start by showing you the data declaration of a State s a in passing, as if it needed no explanation: But this does need explanation! The constructor State holds a function, not just a simple value like Maybe’s Just. Yikes! First of all the State monad is just an abstraction for a function that takes a state and returns an intermediate value and some new state value. Let’s bring the discussion back to actual code and try to make sure we understand those three points of weirdness outlined above. State s a The State Monad: A Tutorial for the Confused? - Brandon.Si(mmons) The State Monad: A Tutorial for the Confused? - Brandon.Si(mmons)
You Could Have Invented Monads! (And Maybe You Already Have.) If you hadn't guessed, this is about monads as they appear in pure functional programming languages like Haskell. They are closely related to the monads of category theory, but are not exactly the same because Haskell doesn't enforce the identities satisfied by categorical monads. Writing introductions to monads seems to have developed into an industry. There's a gentle Introduction, a Haskell Programmer's introduction with the advice "Don't Panic", an introduction for the "Working Haskell Programmer" and countless others that introduce monads as everything from a type of functor to a type of space suit. But all of these introduce monads as something esoteric in need of explanation. Many of the problems that monads try to solve are related to the issue of side effects. Side Effects: Debugging Pure Functions In an imperative programming language such as C++, functions behave nothing like the functions of mathematics. f,g :: Float -> Float f',g' :: Float -> (Float,String) which implies that You Could Have Invented Monads! (And Maybe You Already Have.)
Background: I’ve spent the past 6 years building web applications in Ruby and the Rails framework. I’ve flirted with new programming languages as they came out, but Elixir is the first language that has been able to captivate me. Ruby Crushed It! The ruby language and the Rails framework completely changed the way web applications were built; it started a religion of values that the community cared about. It made the bold challenge that it is developers’ jobs to make sure their code was adequately tested and worked. Ruby went from humble beginnings as an obscure language to one of the most popular languages, largely because of the Rails framework and tremendous leadership from people like DHH, Wycats, Aaron Patterson, Jose Valim and a ton of other superstars. But every so often, artifacts of ruby’s humble beginnings arise Run-away memory! One of the most popular rails servers out there today is unicorn. The solution? Concurrency! But background jobs are just that, done in the background. Why I’m betting on Elixir
ESL activities - resources for English teachers | ELTbase
English Language

(B) = Beginner; (I) = Intermediate; (A) = Advanced VERB TENSES (Tests/Quizzes): Commands (Imperative) 1 (B/I)Commands (Imperative) 2 (B/I)Commands (Imperative) 3 (B/I)The Present Continuous 1 (B)NEWSimple Past/Past Continuous? 1 (A)Simple Past/Past Continuous? SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 1 (B)SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 2 (B)TO BE (Present tense) 1 (B)TO BE (Present tense) 2 (B)NEWTO BE (Present tense) 3 (negative sentences) (B)NEWTO HAVE (Present tense) 1 (B)TO HAVE (Present tense) 2 (B)NEWTO BE or TO HAVE? EXERCISES TO IMPROVE YOUR ENGLISH WRITING SKILLS (ADVANCED) Whether you're a native speaker of English or an advanced ESL student, these practice tests will help you to recognize and eliminate common grammar errors. English punctuation: Comma or semicolon? COUNTABLE (COUNT) or UNCOUNTABLE (NONCOUNT) NOUNS: THERE IS or THERE ARE? USED TO, BE USED TO, WOULD 1 (B/I)NEWWOULD YOU LIKE or DO YOU LIKE? English Grammar Tests for ESL Students - English Grammar Practice Quizzes
C1 level English language practice tests Exam English ✓ Free Practice Tests for learners of English Practice tests at C1 level The following practice tests are at C1 level: CAE About CAE | Reading 1 | Reading 2 | Reading 3 | Reading 4 | Listening 1 | Listening 2 | Listening 3 | Listening 4 | Listening | Use of English 1 | Use of English 2 | Use of English 3 | Use of English 4 | Use of English 5 BEC Higher BEC Higher: Reading part 1 | Reading part 2 PTE General Level 4 Level 4 listening | Level 4 reading | The following are multi-level exams that encompass C1 level: TOEFL Reading: Reading 1| Reading part 1 | Reading part 2 | Reading part 3 Listening: Lecture 1 | Lecture 2 | Lecture 3 | Lecture 4 | Conversation 1 | Conversation 2 | Conversation 3 Vocab & Structure: Vocabulary test | Structure test 1 | Structure test 2 | Structure test 3 | Structure test 4 TOEFL Tips | TOEFL Junior | About TOEFL PTE Academic PTE Academic: listening test 1 | listening test 2 | listening test 3 2014 © Exam English Ltd.
Aprende inglés con canciones de forma interactiva
Language Acquisition

Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Brown's Stages of Syntactic and Morphological Development Details Created: Wednesday, 09 November 2011 08:53 Updated on Friday, 10 June 2016 13:54 Typical expressive language development "Brown's Stages" were identified by Roger Brown 1925-1997 (obituary) and described in his classic book (Brown,1973). A structural analysis does not include a measure of a child's development in the area of the clarity of pronunciation of speech sounds. Morphology In Linguistics, morphology is the branch of grammar devoted to the study of the structure or forms of words, primarily through the use of the morpheme construct. Syntax In Linguistics, syntax is a traditional term for the study the rules governing the combination of words to form sentences. Morpheme A morpheme is a unit of meaning. happy 'Happy’ is ONE WORD, it has TWO SYLLABLES (ha-ppy), and because it contains only one unit of meaning it is ONE MORPHEME. Stage I Sentence Types Brown's Stage I Brown's Stages ("Brown's Morphemes") I to IV Reference Links
To browse for materials to play: Use the left menu to navigate through the CHILDES corpora. Click once on the folder you want to explore, and it will expand to show any available subfolders and transcripts. Once you have found the transcript you want to review, click its filename. Next to each transcript name is an icon displaying whether the file has linked audio , video , or no media Controlling playback: For transcripts that are linked to media, you can control playback in three ways: Use the controls that display below the media to play, pause, and rewind/fast forward. Continuous playback: By default, media playback is continuous. To run CLAN commands: CLAN commands may be entered in the text box below Command line: (on left, below the directory listing), and run entirely in the browser. Hiding dependent tiers: Codes, comments, events, and descriptions of interest to the researcher are often typed below the main tier. Eng-UK/ | CHILDES Transcript Browser
Learning / Language

Learn Languages Online | LingQ
27 Great Resources on Using Portfolios for Language Learning and Literacy | Literacy, Languages and Leadership
European Language Portfolio (ELP) - Homepage
Language Arts Writing

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