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European History

History - Ancient Worlds | Civilization: The Rise of Europe
The evolution of military kit - the equipment of Britains soldiers from the 11th century to today Every century has its own battle, and battles from different eras had been fought with different weapons. It’s amazing to see how the soldiers inventory has evolved over the years. For instance, the soldiers from the 13th century were heading to a battle equipped with Kettle helmet and battle axe, the soldiers in the 16th century were using swords and daggers and throughout World War I, hand grenades were a regular part of every British soldier’s kit. Thom Atkinson, a UK-based photographer documents the equipment of British soldiers over the course of 1,000 years. The neatly organized gear, besides weapons, also included things like cards, checkerboards, which provide a glimpse of how the soldiers killed the boredom and monotony during a war. The project shows the exceptional similarities and differences between soldier inventory separated by decades and perfectly captures the evolution of military weapon. Collection from the Battle of Hastings in 1066. During the 1854 Battle Of Alma The evolution of military kit - the equipment of Britains soldiers from the 11th century to today
The Bayeux Tapestry Animated We had to do it. We had to bring back a wonderful little animation of The Bayeux Tapestry -- you know, the famous embroidery that offers a pictorial interpretation of the Norman Conquest of England (1066) and the events leading up to this pivotal moment in medieval history. Currently residing in France, the tapestry measures 20 inches by 230 feet, and you can now see an animated version of the story it narrates. The clip above starts roughly halfway through the historical narrative, with the appearance of Halley's Comet, and it concludes with the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The video created by David Newton began as a student project at Goldsmiths College. P.S. The Bayeux Tapestry Animated
Culture & History

This Tiny French Archipelago Became America’s Alcohol Warehouse During Prohibition The tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon—cold, fogbound and windswept specks in the North Atlantic midway between New York City and Greenland—lie far closer to polar bears and icebergs than the speakeasies and clubs where Americans tippled during Prohibition. But thanks to quirks of geography, history and law, the French archipelago served up much of the booze that Prohibition was supposed to keep Americans from drinking. The remote islands imported a total of 98,500 liters in all between 1911 and 1918. That was before Prohibition began on January 16, 1920. A decade later, with the ban on the production, importation and sale of alcohol in full swing, more than 4 million liters in whiskey alone flowed into the islands’ warehouses—along with hundreds of thousands of cases of wine, Champagne, brandy, and rum—and then flowed right back out. During Prohibition, the port in St. Despite the ban on booze, millions of Americans still wanted to drink. Jean Pierre Andrieux now lives in St. This Tiny French Archipelago Became America’s Alcohol Warehouse During Prohibition
Why are wedding dresses white? What are the meanings behind wedding dress colors? Learn about the history of wedding dresses and how the white wedding dress became so popular. Until the nineteen-hundreds, brides hardly ever bought a special wedding dress, opting for their best outfit instead. Wedding Dress Color Meanings Green was always avoided, as it was thought to be unlucky. Married in White, you have chosen right Married in Grey, you will go far away Married in Black, you will wish yourself back, Married in Red, you will wish yourself dead, Married in Green, ashamed to be seen, Married in Blue, you will always be true, Married in Pearl, you will live in a whirl, Married in Yellow, ashamed of your fellow, Married in Brown, you will live in the town, Married in Pink, your spirit will sink. The Origin of the White Wedding Dress What Does the Groom Wear to the Wedding? To cut a dashing figure, the groom should match the bride. Are you ready for your wedding? Why Are Wedding Dresses White? | Wedding Dress History Why Are Wedding Dresses White? | Wedding Dress History
Was the Real Lone Ranger a Black Man? Was the Real Lone Ranger a Black Man? On a riverbank in Texas, a master of disguise waited patiently with his accomplice, hoping that his target, an infamous horse thief, would show himself on the trail. After four days, the hunch paid off, when the bandit unwittingly walked towards the man who haunted the outlaws of the Old West. Springing from the bushes, the cowboy confronted his frightened mark with a warrant. As the desperado reached for his weapon as a last ditch effort, the lawman shot him down before his gun could leave his side. Though the quick-draw tale may sound like an adventure of the Lone Ranger, this was no fictional event. In 1838—nearly a century before the Lone Ranger was introduced to the public—Bass Reeves was born a slave in the Arkansas household of William S. While serving George, Bass escaped to Indian Territory under the cover of the night. Upon arriving in the Indian Territory, Bass learned the landscape and the customs of the Seminole and Creek tribes, even learning to speak their languages.
Lidija Litvjaková - nejlepší pilotka všech dob – Lidija Litvjaková - nejlepší pilotka všech dob – Vypadala jako dospívající děvče. Bylo jí sotva jedenadvacet let. Německé letecké eso s jedenácti sestřely a trojnásobný držitel Železného kříže se cítil dotčen, že ho urazili takovým žertíkem. Dokud mu však dívenka nezačala podrobně líčit průběh souboje, který s ním na nebi svedla. Ze školy uměla německy, a tak se s užaslým pilotem luftwaffe dokázala dorozumět v jeho vlastním jazyce. Meier musel připustit, že nikdo – s výjimkou pilota, který ho porazil – nemohl znát detaily souboje. Nejlepší stíhací pilotka všech dob Ta dívka s dětskou tváří se jmenovala Lidija Litvjaková. Ve své knize Bílá růže ze Stalingradu, vydané u nás v těchto dnech nakladatelstvím Mladá fronta, jej takto zaznamenal i americký historik Bill Yenne. Lidija Litvjaková se posléze stala nejlepší stíhací pilotkou všech dob a jednou ze dvou žen poctěných titulem letecké eso, jehož se dosahuje za pět a více ověřených vítězství. Lidija Litvjaková u svého Jaku-1. Ztratila otce a chtěla létat K letectvu ženy nechtěli
Pankrácká sekyrárna, místo, z něhož mrazí ještě dnes – Další lidé byli popraveni oběšením na ocelové traverze s osmi háky, zavěšené na stropu vedle gilotiny. Samostatné místo pro popravu gilotinou bylo v protektorátu oficiálně zřízeno výnosem říšského ministra spravedlnosti dr. Georga Otto Thieracka ze dne 15. dubna 1943. První poprava se přitom v pankrácké sekyrárně uskutečnila již o deset dní dříve, tedy 5. dubna 1943. Počet popravených je znám kvůli důkladnosti kata Aloise Weisse, který si vedl knihu, do níž pečlivě zapisoval exekuce, a nakonec ji v prostorách sekyrárny zapomněl. Sekyrárnu tvořily tři přestavěné místnosti číslo 32, 33 a 34. Popravčí místnost s gilotinou byla od té první oddělena pouze černým závěsem. Zasedací místnost FOTO: Novinky Po zhruba dvou minutách se přešlo k další popravě. V místnosti s gilotinou se konaly popravy. Na nosítkách pak byly ostatky vězňů přeneseny do místnosti zvané rakvárna. Místnost zvaná rakvárna s bednami, ve kterých se těla převážela do krematoria v pražských Strašnicích. Pankrácká sekyrárna, místo, z něhož mrazí ještě dnes –
Latin America, Not Southeast Asia, Will Be the World's Economic Powerhouse Sunrise over Lake Atitlan, Guatemala via Flickr In today's post-recession, cost-competitive environment, Asian countries like India and China have positioned themselves as the natural heirs to U.S. economic dominance. However, as Americans and Europeans look east, fretting about China's economic outlook amidst rising debt, stagnating wages, and excess supply with weakened demand, changes are happening in South and Central America that could potentially have a game-changing impact on the economic landscape of the twenty-first century. The upsides Economic indicators are often viewed short-term, and to see why Latin America is uniquely positioned to assume a leading role in the economics of the twenty-first century, it's important to look at longer-term indicators that are slightly subtler, but which a great punch over the long run. Another measure of long-term economic health is the ability of a nation to feed its people, and still be left with enough products for exports. Latin America, Not Southeast Asia, Will Be the World's Economic Powerhouse
As U.S. President Donald Trump prepares to meet Wednesday with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas, it appears the two-state solution isn’t dead after all. Hamas, the militant group that rules the Gaza Strip, in a modestly surprising move has said it would accept a Palestinian state in pre-1967 borders. The motives for the announcement, which also came with the group’s distancing from the Muslim Brotherhood, are complex. QuickTake Two-State Solution It’s long been assumed that although Hamas wouldn’t act as a spoiler to a deal between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, it also wouldn’t give up its rejection of a two-state solution -- a powerful source of its legitimacy with skeptical Palestinians. The announcement on Monday is most noteworthy for altering that traditional Hamas position. What’s changed? Declaring openness to a two-state solution gives Hamas some leverage. Meanwhile, Hamas also needs support from the Persian Gulf states, especially Qatar. Hamas Zaps Some Life Into the Peace Process - Bloomberg View Hamas Zaps Some Life Into the Peace Process - Bloomberg View
Ancient History

The Surprising Hidden Meaning Of The Washington Monument George Washington was not only our first president, but also a Master Mason. Freemasonry is a fraternal organization that was forged in the 14th century and has been shrouded in secrecy (and plenty of conspiracy) for much of the time since. While we aren’t going to indulge in the conspiracy aspect at this time (although, if you choose, feel free to by watching the video at the end of the article, “Hidden in Plain Sight”), the rites of Freemasonry, as well as the use of sacred geometry and appreciation of Egyptian deities, are where we can begin to connect some very interesting dots. The Washington Monument is a structure called an obelisk, measuring 555 feet and 5 1/8 inches high. According to Wikipedia, an obelisk is: “A tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top. These were originally called ‘tekhenu’ by the builders, Ancient Egyptians.” In the book, Our Phallic Heritage (by Charles G. Try Our Cleanse To Get Rid Of Your Parasites! The Surprising Hidden Meaning Of The Washington Monument
The Secret Worship of the Illuminati: The Statue of Liberty is Anunnaki Goddess Inanna The American Babylonianism Introduction The Statue of Liberty has become the most cherished symbo... The American BabylonianismIntroduction The Statue of Liberty has become the most cherished symbol of the United States of America. What we were NOT taught in school were the truly significant facts regarding the true nature of the Statue. Those pertinent facts that remain largely unknown revolve around the true history of the Statue’s inception as well as the meaning and significance behind the statue. French sculptor, Frederic Bartholdi, designed the Statue of Liberty. The idea for creating a statue of liberty and freedom was first proposed by another Frenchman by the name of Edward Laboulaye. It was Laboulaye’s idea and determination during the American Civil War that carried the idea from a simple notion to an actual project. Laboulaye, a French Freemason proposed the idea of a giant statue replicating a goddess that the Masonic movement idolized. What deity was this? Why? #1. #2. #3. #4.
IS THE STATUE OF LIBERTY PAGAN William F. Dankenbring What is the history and origin of the famed "Statue of Liberty"? Is it so innocent as millions assume? It is very interesting that the great symbol that is situated in the harbor of New York City, the Statue of Liberty, is a woman carrying a torch. Looking at the prophecies of the end-time Babylon in the book of Revelation, we find that it is associated with a "woman." ". . . And in chapter 18 we read further: And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power . . . When we read all the facts, we discover that there are three components of modern "Babylon." The Daughter of Babylon The prophet Isaiah tells us more about this symbiotic relationship. "Come down, and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground: there is no throne, O DAUGHTER of the Chaldeans: for thou shalt no more be called tender and delicate. . . The Masonic Connection Writes James Lloyd in Beyond Babylon: Goddess Diana of the Ephesians
DP History

Author and Page information Democracy (“rule by the people” when translated from its Greek meaning) is seen as one of the ultimate ideals that modern civilizations strive to create, or preserve. Democracy as a system of governance is supposed to allow extensive representation and inclusiveness of as many people and views as possible to feed into the functioning of a fair and just society. Democratic principles run in line with the ideals of universal freedoms such as the right to free speech. Importantly, democracy supposedly serves to check unaccountable power and manipulation by the few at the expense of the many, because fundamentally democracy is seen as a form of governance by the people, for the people. The ideals of democracy are so appealing to citizens around the world, that many have sacrificed their livelihoods, even their lives, to fight for it. However, even in established democracies, there are pressures that threaten various democratic foundations. Introduction Definition Democracy
Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars1. Assess the role of each of the following in causing the First World War (1914–1918): the desire for revenge; economic motives; Balkan nationalism.2. “The length and outcome of the civil war was dependent upon outside involvement.” With reference to two twentieth century civil wars, to what extent do you agree with this statement?3. With reference to the period 1919–1939, analyse the factors which hindered the maintenance of international peace.4. Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses7. Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern European states19. Topic 5 The Cold War25. November 2013 PAPER 2 Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars1. Topic 2 Democratic states – challenges and responses7. Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states13. Topic 5 The Cold War25. Essays on Causes and Practice of the Great War Traces of Evil: Past IBDP History Paper 2 Questions and Responses
William Cronon (Photo by Rees Candee) Welcome! We've designed this website as a basic introduction to historical research for anyone and everyone who is interested in exploring the past. Whenever you frame a question with reference to how things have changed over time, you commit yourself to doing historical research. All of us do this all the time, but not everyone thinks very carefully about the best ways of finding information about the past and how it relates to the present. The website is divided into two major sections: The first surveys essential stages of the research process. Individual pages are designed to be read from beginning to end, and the pages about the research process follow a logical order that mimics the phases of working on a historical project. Almost any question you can imagine asking about any topic will become more intriguing if you consider the ways in which the subject you're investigating has changed over time. Return to Top of Page Note-taking keywords Learning Historical Research - Home
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Russian Revolution, Civil War and USSR 1917-1991
Old Photos - Russian Cities
Vintage Photos of Soviet Union Back in 1930 (45)
Russian History

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