How to Determine If A Controversial Statement Is Scientifically True. A small typo: "...Dr.
Plait warned that [t]here are a few things to watch out for... ". Great article overall, though I wonder if it advocates leaning on authority figures a bit too much. I think it's fairly obvious that the evidence itself is more important than whoever presents it, but I wish this were stated more explicitly. It can be next to impossible for laypeople to determine the difference between "legitimate" experts and their counterparts (and in some fields "legitimacy" may be ill-defined to the point of meaninglessness, and even experts aren't *always* right). The ability to judge data on its own merits (using questions like "was the study double blind? " Flagged Thanks for the correction - and excellent points, thank you!
Cognitive Science. Theory & Practice. Metacognitive strategies. 16 Things I Wish They Had Taught Me in School. I am 28 now.
I don’t think about the past or regret things much these days. But sometimes I wish that I had known some of things I have learned over the last few years a bit earlier. That perhaps there had been a self-improvement class in school. And in some ways there probably was. You Are Not So Smart. 47 Mind-Blowing Psychology-Proven Facts You Should Know About Yourself. I’ve decided to start a series called 100 Things You Should Know about People.
As in: 100 things you should know if you are going to design an effective and persuasive website, web application or software application. Dunning–Kruger effect. The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which relatively unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability to be much higher than it really is.
Dunning and Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive inability of the unskilled to recognize their own ineptitude and evaluate their own ability accurately. Their research also suggests corollaries: highly skilled individuals may underestimate their relative competence and may erroneously assume that tasks which are easy for them are also easy for others. Dunning and Kruger have postulated that the effect is the result of internal illusion in the unskilled, and external misperception in the skilled: "The miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others.
" Original study Supporting studies Studies on the Dunning–Kruger effect tend to focus on American test subjects. Forer effect. A related and more general phenomenon is that of subjective validation. Subjective validation occurs when two unrelated or even random events are perceived to be related because a belief, expectation, or hypothesis demands a relationship.
Thus people seek a correspondence between their perception of their personality and the contents of a horoscope. Forer's demonstration On average, the students rated its accuracy as 4.26 on a scale of 0 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). Only after the ratings were turned in was it revealed that each student had received an identical sketch assembled by Forer from a newsstand astrology book. The sketch contains statements that are vague and general enough to most people. In another study examining the Forer effect, students took the MMPI personality assessment and researchers evaluated their responses.
The Forer effect is also known as the "Barnum effect". Repeating the study Top 10 Common Faults In Human Thought. Humans The human mind is a wonderful thing.
Cognition, the act or process of thinking, enables us to process vast amounts of information quickly. For example, every time your eyes are open, you brain is constantly being bombarded with stimuli. You may be consciously thinking about one specific thing, but you brain is processing thousands of subconscious ideas. List of cognitive biases. Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.
There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person. 5 Logical Fallacies That Make You Wrong More Than You Think. Abnormaldiversity. The Ten Most Revealing Psych Experiments. Psychology is the study of the human mind and mental processes in relation to human behaviors - human nature.
Due to its subject matter, psychology is not considered a 'hard' science, even though psychologists do experiment and publish their findings in respected journals. Some of the experiments psychologists have conducted over the years reveal things about the way we humans think and behave that we might not want to embrace, but which can at least help keep us humble. That's something. 1. 'Lord of the Flies': Social Identity Theory. Implicit memory.
Evidence and current research Advanced studies of implicit memory began only a few decades ago.
Many of these studies focus on the effect of implicit memory known as priming. Several studies have been performed that confirm the existence of a separate entity which is implicit memory. In one such experiment, participants were asked to listen to several songs and decide if they were familiar with the song or not. Half of the participants were presented with familiar American folk songs and the other half were presented with songs made using the tunes of the same songs from group 1 but mixed with new lyrics. Results show that participants in group 1 had a much higher chance of recalling the songs as being familiar, even though in both groups, the tunes of the songs were the same. This study shows that people are even implicitly making connections amongst their memories.
Current research According to Daniel L. There are usually two approaches to studying implicit memory. Theories about decision errors. What Does Your Body Language Say About You? How To Read Signs and Recognize Gestures - Jinxi Boo - Jinxi Boo. Art by LaetitziaAs we all know, communication is essential in society.
Advancements in technology have transformed the way that we correspond with others in the modern world. Because of the constant buzz in our technological world, it's easy to forget how important communicating face-to-face is. When conversing old-school style, it's not only speech we verbalize that matters, but what our nonverbal gestures articulate as well.
Body language is truly a language of its own. We all have quirks and habits that are uniquely our own. 10% from what the person actually says40% from the tone and speed of voice50% is from their body language. Lowering one's head can signal a lack of confidence.