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Week 1 - History&The Scientific Methods

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Classics in the History of Psychology. Statistics Comparing Two Groups Tutorial. A common form of scientific experimentation is the comparison of two groups.

Statistics Comparing Two Groups Tutorial

This comparison could be of two different treatments, the comparison of a treatment to a control, or a before and after comparison. The preliminary results of experiments that are designed to compare two groups are usually summarized into a means or scores for each group. Once you’ve summarized this data, how do you decide if the observed differences between the two groups are real or just a chance difference caused by the natural variation within the measurements?

A common way to approach that question is by performing a statistical analysis. T-TEST. Student's t-test We use this test for comparing the means of two samples (or treatments), even if they have different numbers of replicates.

T-TEST

In simple terms, the t-test compares the actual difference between two means in relation to the variation in the data (expressed as the standard deviation of the difference between the means). Procedure First, we will see how to do this test using "pencil and paper" (with a calculator to help with the calculations). Then we can see how the same test can be done in a spreadsheet package (Microsoft 'Excel') 1. Correlation.

« PreviousHomeNext » The correlation is one of the most common and most useful statistics.

Correlation

A correlation is a single number that describes the degree of relationship between two variables. Let's work through an example to show you how this statistic is computed. Correlation Example Let's assume that we want to look at the relationship between two variables, height (in inches) and self esteem. Now, let's take a quick look at the histogram for each variable: Correlation. When two sets of data are strongly linked together we say they have a High Correlation.

Correlation

The word Correlation is made of Co- (meaning "together"), and Relation Correlation is Positive when the values increase together, and Correlation is Negative when one value decreases as the other increases Like this: Correlation can have a value: 1 is a perfect positive correlation 0 is no correlation (the values don't seem linked at all) -1 is a perfect negative correlation The value shows how good the correlation is (not how steep the line is), and if it is positive or negative. Example: Ice Cream Sales The local ice cream shop keeps track of how much ice cream they sell versus the temperature on that day, here are their figures for the last 12 days: And here is the same data as a Scatter Plot: We can easily see that warmer weather leads to more sales, the relationship is good but not perfect.

Behaviorism vs. Cognitivism. Behaviorism and Cognitivism are two movements in psychology that have significant implications for viewing learning and education.

Behaviorism vs. Cognitivism

Behaviorism is the study of behavior for the purpose of identifying its determinants. Behaviorism employs mechanism as a fundamental metaphor, which assumes that behavior is governed by a finite set of physical laws. Cognitivism was a reaction to Behaviorism. Timeline of Psychology. The History of Psychology. The Little Albert Experiment. Freud Complete Works. Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud (/frɔɪd/;[2] German pronunciation: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏ̯t]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist, now known as the father of psychoanalysis.

Sigmund Freud

Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881,[3] and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at the Vienna General Hospital.[4] Upon completing his habilitation in 1895, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology in the same year and became an affiliated professor (professor extraordinarius) in 1902.[5][6] Psychoanalysis remains influential within psychotherapy, within some areas of psychiatry, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause.[10] Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture.

Charles Darwin. Charles Robert Darwin, FRS[2] (/ˈdɑrwɪn/;[3] 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist,[4] best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

Charles Darwin

[I] He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors,[5] and in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.[6] Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species.[7][8] By the 1870s, the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact.

Biography Early life and education Painting of seven-year-old Charles Darwin in 1816. Wilhelm Wundt. Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physician, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology.

Wilhelm Wundt

Ernst Heinrich Weber. Ernst Heinrich Weber (June 24, 1795 – January 26, 1878) was a German physician who is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology.

Ernst Heinrich Weber

Weber (1795-1878) was an influential and important figure in the areas of physiology and psychology during his lifetime and beyond. His studies on sensation and touch, along with his emphasis on good experimental techniques gave way to new directions and areas of study for future psychologists, physiologists, and anatomists. Ernst Weber was born into an academic background, with his father serving as a professor at the University of Wittenberg. Hermann von Helmholtz. Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science.

Hermann von Helmholtz

In physiology and psychology, he is known for his mathematics of the eye, theories of vision, ideas on the visual perception of space, color vision research, and on the sensation of tone, perception of sound, and empiricism. In physics, he is known for his theories on the conservation of energy, work in electrodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, and on a mechanical foundation of thermodynamics. Materialism. Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all phenomena, including mental phenomena and consciousness, are identical with material interactions.

Materialism is closely related to physicalism, the view that all that exists is ultimately physical. Philosophical physicalism has evolved from materialism with the discoveries of the physical sciences to incorporate more sophisticated notions of physicality than mere ordinary matter, such as: spacetime, physical energies and forces, dark matter, and so on. Thus the term "physicalism" is preferred over "materialism" by some, while others use the terms as if they are synonymous. Overview[edit]