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Magnetism A magnetic quadrupole Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that includes forces exerted by magnets on other magnets. It has its origin in electric currents and the fundamental magnetic moments of elementary particles. These give rise to a magnetic field that acts on other currents and moments. All materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field. The strongest effect is on permanent magnets, which have persistent magnetic moments caused by ferromagnetism.


Magnetic flux Magnetic flux Description[edit] The magnetic flux through a surface when the magnetic field is variable relies on splitting the surface into small surface elements, over which the magnetic field can be considered to be locally constant. The total flux is then a formal summation of these surface elements (see surface integration). Each point on a surface is associated with a direction, called the surface normal; the magnetic flux through a point is then the component of the magnetic field along this direction. The magnetic interaction is described in terms of a vector field, where each point in space (and time) is associated with a vector that determines what force a moving charge would experience at that point (see Lorentz force).
Electricity and Magnetism - Physics -

Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. It is described mathematically by Faraday's law of induction, named after Michael Faraday who is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831. History[edit] A diagram of Faraday's iron ring apparatus. Change in the magnetic flux of the left coil induces a current in the right coil.[1]
Magnetic field of an ideal cylindrical magnet with its axis of symmetry inside the image plane. The magnetic field is represented by magnetic field lines, which show the direction of the field at different points. In everyday life, magnetic fields are most often encountered as an invisible force created by permanent magnets which pull on ferromagnetic materials such as iron, cobalt or nickel and attract or repel other magnets. Magnetic fields are very widely used throughout modern technology, particularly in electrical engineering and electromechanics. Magnetic field Magnetic field
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory - Right and Left Hand Rules Tutorial Right and Left Hand Rules You’ll find two of the most useful tools for understanding electromagnetism right at the end of your arms. These convenient appendages help us understand the interaction between electricity and magnetism via the Right Hand Rule and the Left Hand Rule. The Right Hand Rule, illustrated below, simply shows how a current-carrying wire generates a magnetic field. If you point your thumb in the direction of the current, as shown, and let your fingers assume a curved position, the magnetic field circling around those wires flows in the direction in which your four fingers point. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory - Right and Left Hand Rules Tutorial