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Magnetism A magnetic quadrupole Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that includes forces exerted by magnets on other magnets. It has its origin in electric currents and the fundamental magnetic moments of elementary particles. These give rise to a magnetic field that acts on other currents and moments. All materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field. The strongest effect is on permanent magnets, which have persistent magnetic moments caused by ferromagnetism.


Magnetic flux Magnetic flux In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted Φ or ΦB) through a surface is the component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface. The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb) (in derived units: volt-seconds), and the CGS unit is the maxwell. Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils and electronics, that evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the magnetic flux. Description[edit] The magnetic flux through a surface when the magnetic field is variable relies on splitting the surface into small surface elements, over which the magnetic field can be considered to be locally constant.
Electricity and Magnetism - Physics -

Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831 though it may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in 1829.[1] Around 1830[2] to 1832,[3] Joseph Henry made a similar discovery, but did not publish his findings until later. It is also known (above all in Italy) as Faraday and Neumann's law of induction, due to the works of Franz Ernst Neumann. Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF). It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.[4][5]
Magnetic field of an ideal cylindrical magnet with its axis of symmetry inside the image plane. The magnetic field is represented by magnetic field lines, which show the direction of the field at different points. A magnetic field is a mathematical description of the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field. Magnetic field Magnetic field
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory - Right and Left Hand Rules Tutorial Right and Left Hand Rules You’ll find two of the most useful tools for understanding electromagnetism right at the end of your arms. These convenient appendages help us understand the interaction between electricity and magnetism via the Right Hand Rule and the Left Hand Rule. The Right Hand Rule, illustrated below, simply shows how a current-carrying wire generates a magnetic field. If you point your thumb in the direction of the current, as shown, and let your fingers assume a curved position, the magnetic field circling around those wires flows in the direction in which your four fingers point. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory - Right and Left Hand Rules Tutorial