This article examines the origins of the Cherokee syllabary, and tries to sort through the many differing opinions that have been written about it. While it is apparent that the syllabary has not changed much in the number, form, or order of presentation of the characters since 1827, the debate is over what changes, if any, took place before then. The history of native literacy in America began when Europeans invaded the country and derived native languages based off of their own to help spread Christianity to the Indians and to integrate them into the Euroamerican culture. However, when the Cherokee syllabary developed in the 1820s, it broke from this pattern, as it was syllabic and had no links to Christianity or any Euroamerican language. It was invented in the early 1820s by a monolingual and illiterate Cherokee named Sequoyah, and, by 1821, he was publicly demonstrating the system with his six-year-old daughter, Ahyokeh, serving as his first student. The language spread rapidly – jones_s_anth316
Online Speech Bank: Chief Tecumseh - Address to William Henry Harrison on Selling a Country. [AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio.]
One of the most fascinating and inspiring pieces I have read so far this semester is a speech that Shawnee Chief Tecumseh addressed to General William Henry Harrison in 1810 at Vincennes (in the Indiana Territory). Tecumseh begins the speech by describing his background, and how he has come to be in the position he is in. Then, he begins the main message of his speech a plea and warning for Harrison and the Americans to stop dividing Indian tribes and taking their land. He derides Whites for [taking] the tribes aside and [advising] them not to come into this measureto make them war with each other, which is [preventing] the Indians from doing as [he wishes] them, to unite and let them consider their lands as a common property of the whole. Tecumseh then describes how there have only been a few Indians who have sold land to the Americans, and that they have [destroyed these] village chiefs. He promises that those who continue to sell land in the future will be punished, and that if Ame – jones_s_anth316
Houses are built for you to hold councils in.
The Indians hold theirs in the open air. I am a Shawnee. My forefathers were warriors. Their son is a warrior.
The paper Symbol, Utility, and Aesthetics in the Indian Fur Trade takes a close look at the trade that occurred between Indians and European explores and settlers. At first, there was a major disconnect between the Indians and Europeans. Whereas the Europeans viewed items (as many still do today) in economic terms, the Indians did not. The Indians accepted European items such as beads, mirrors, bells, and caps, not for their economic value, but rather for their decorative, aesthetic, magical, curiosity, or amusement value. Indian culture has always held gift-giving in a significant manner. Presents are given to establish rank and prestige, as well as to mark important occasions in peoples lives. Each gift possesses a specific message or symbolic meaning. Thus, Indians were willing to give generously of their material goods and services (including gold) without demanding seemingly an equal amount in return (at least to the European who viewed items in economic terms). However, demand fr – jones_s_anth316
When James Smith was an 18 year-old settler, he was captured by Delaware and Caughnawaga Indians. The Indians decided to adopt him, making him go through the customary gantlet and adoption ceremony. Even though Smith wanted to go back, the Indians would not let him. Rather, they wanted him to fill the role of their lost members - to become a great man and a skilled woodsman, hunter, and warrior. However, Smith remained loyal to his settler community, and didnt fight with the Indians. However, he was able to listen to and record the Indians' battle plans, by which he learned about their warfare plans and principles. Smith stayed with the Indians for five years and, although he respected and admired them, he escaped on a French ship in 1759. Smith later went on to become a captain for American settlers who were fighting against Indians over land. He and other former captives instructed other settlers on Indian tactics that they had learned, and dressed and painted themselves as Indians ( – jones_s_anth316
Eastern Woodland Indians. American Antiquity, Vol. 64, No. 3 (Jul., 1999), pp. 499-516. A molecular analysis of dietary diversity for three archaic Native Americans — PNAS. Indians and the American Revolution. Yet the passions engendered by the American Revolution, despite the good will expressed in the formal policy enunciated by the government, was to lead to bitter and violent confrontations on the frontier.
The bloody ground of Kentucky was to be repeated in region after region as the undisciplined and unregulated expansion of the American people got underway. In the end the Indian was the loser. That he would have been a loser even if the King had repressed the rebellion is probable; but his decline would not have been so swift or so bitter. 1. I have discussed the early English charters in my "Red Man's Land/White Man's Law: A Study of the Past and Present Status of the American Indian" (New York, 1971). 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.