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Pearltrees tips. Chemistry. Empirical and Molecular Formula Calculations. Custom Search Back to Percent Composition by Mass Empirical formula is the smallest whole number ratio of moles of each element in a compound.

Empirical and Molecular Formula Calculations

CaCl2 --> there is 1 mole of calcium for every 2 moles of chlorine Level 1 Simple Empirical formula questions What is the empirical formula of the following compounds? Level 2 Empirical Formula Calculation Steps Step 1 If you have masses go onto step 2. If you have %. Step 2 Determine the moles of each element. Step 3 Determine the mole ratio by dividing each elements number of moles by the smallest value from step 2.

Step 4 Double, triple … to get an integer if they are not all whole numbers Molecular Formula (additional steps) The question should have included a molecular mass. Step 5 Determine the mass of your empirical formula Step 6 Divide the given molecular mass by your E.F. mass in step 5 Step 7 Multiply the atoms in the empirical formula by this number (Hint-Save the molar mass 194.19g/mol until the end) 49.48% C, 5.190%H, 16.47% O and 28.85% N ***note. Chemguide: helping you to understand Chemistry - Main Menu. Shapes of Molecules. Shapes of molecules and ions containing single bonds.

Methane and the ammonium ion are said to be isoelectronic.

shapes of molecules and ions containing single bonds

Two species (atoms, molecules or ions) are isoelectronic if they have exactly the same number and arrangement of electrons (including the distinction between bonding pairs and lone pairs). The hydroxonium ion, H3O+ Oxygen is in group 6 - so has 6 outer electrons. Add 1 for each hydrogen, giving 9. Take one off for the +1 ion, leaving 8. Five electron pairs around the central atom A simple example: phosphorus(V) fluoride, PF5 (The argument for phosphorus(V) chloride, PCl5, would be identical.)

Phosphorus (in group 5) contributes 5 electrons, and the five fluorines 5 more, giving 10 electrons in 5 pairs around the central atom. Science aid: Electron Arrangement. Electron Arrangement Electron Arrangement This topic often confuses people so don't worry if you don't understand it first time.

Science aid: Electron Arrangement

Read up on electron arrangment in textbooks and get other people to explain it to you. Before this level of study you will have been told that electrons have fields of 2,8,8 maximum capacity. Well, this is not true. For these sub-shells it is important to note that the 4s requires less energy for electrons to enter it than the 3d. On the image, highlighted in blue are two features: The mass spectrometer - how it works. Assuming 1+ ions, stream A has the lightest ions, stream B the next lightest and stream C the heaviest.

the mass spectrometer - how it works

Lighter ions are going to be more deflected than heavy ones. Detection Only ion stream B makes it right through the machine to the ion detector. The other ions collide with the walls where they will pick up electrons and be neutralised. Enthalpy - ChemWiki. Enthalpy Change Accompanying a Change in State of Matter When a liquid vaporizes the liquid must absorb heat from its surroundings to replace the energy taken by the vaporizing molecules in order for the temperature to remain constant.

Enthalpy - ChemWiki

This heat required to vaporize the liquid is called enthalpy of vaporization, or often, heat of vaporization. For example, the vaporization of one mole of water the enthalpy is given as: Chemistry. Science and Engineering. Latin. CSCP - Cambridge Latin Course - Home. Roman Gladiator Types. Different gladiators specialized in different weapons and tactics.

Roman Gladiator Types

The following illustrates these various styles and equipment. Of these,Thracians, Mirmillones, Retiarii, and Secutores were four of the most common. Andabatae: (1st cent. BC) Clad in chainmail like eastern cavalry (cataphracti), wore visored helmets without eye holes. They charged blindly at one another on horseback as an ancient precursor to the medieval joust. Bestiarii: (beast fighters) originally armed with a spear or knife, these gladiators were condemned to fight beasts with a high probability of death. Dimachaeri: Used two-swords, one in each hand. Equites: Fought on horseback with a spear and gladius, dressed in a full tunic, with a manica (arm-guard). Essedari: Celtic style charioteers, likely first brought to Rome from Britain by Caesar. Category. As of July 1, 2013 ThinkQuest has been discontinued.

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